Homemade Sausage Making
Recipes for Tasty Homemade Sausages

Technology basis - Binder Question

Jarhead - Sat Aug 20, 2011 05:14
Post subject: Binder Question
I am making some peppered beef sticks this weekend. The recipe that I have calls for 1/2 C flavor binder for 10# ground meat. (80/20)
I ordered some and it didn't come in today.
Can I get by without it or is there a substitute or something else in place of it?
Thanks.

Chuckwagon - Sat Aug 20, 2011 10:45

Hi Gunny,
By “flavor binder”, are you referring to the “Special Meat Binder” from Butcher-Packer? If so, you should be aware that it is one of the phosphates and is surrounded in controversy as phosphates are actually able to open the structure of a protein, helping it hold more water than any other “binder”. Most countries permit only 0.5% (5 grams) per kilogram of meat.
If you have a supply of soy protein concentrate on hand, (not to be confused with soy protein isolate which is stronger and more expensive), you might consider adding one cup to ten pounds of meat. Soy protein should be kept beneath 5% as any more than that can affect the taste of the sausage and make it taste “beany”. Another option is “dairyfine” non-fat dry milk, available from dairies. (Not the stuff you get in a box at your grocers containing 50% lactose and only 30% protein). Good luck.

Best Wishes,
Chuckwagon

Jarhead - Sat Aug 20, 2011 13:04

CW, thanks for the reply.
Yes that is what I was referring to.
I don't have any of those things. I'll see what I can find around here. Probably not much in these 1 horse towns. :wink:
Could it be made without it or should I change recipes? Do you have one?

Chuckwagon - Sat Aug 20, 2011 22:43

Gunny, good ol' Polish "Kabanosy" is made without binders and it's pretty good stuff! Take a look at Stan's recipe at this link: http://wedlinydomowe.pl/en/viewtopic.php?t=4793
There are many people who like using the powdered milk from a grocery store although it's full of sugar - too much for me I'm afraid... but I'm just saying some use it - others don't. I'm not recommending it. If it were up to me, I'd make Stan's kabanosy while waiting for your order of "binder". Who knows, you just might like it better.

Best Wishes,
Chuckwagon

crustyo44 - Mon Aug 22, 2011 04:02

Hi CW,
Man, you got me all mixed up now with all that talk about "dairyfine non fat dry milk" and "powdered milk" from the grocery store.
I was going to use skim milk powder as a binder for my next projects this coming weekend.
Can you PLEASE tell an old beginner what the exact difference is and what/how to use it?
Thank you,
Best Regards,
Jan,
Brisbane.

Jarhead - Mon Aug 22, 2011 08:35

Thanks for the link and the advice CW.
I had beef, not pork, so I didn't make that one. I ended up making a Cajun Snack Stick. It turned out pretty good, at least it was edible.
I had some 22 mm collagen casings on hand, so I used them. I'm used to a natural casing, so I didn't care for the collagen.
Also, wish I had some Encapsulated Citric Acid to add to it. With those changes mentioned, it should be a better stick.

crustyo44, I'm also curious on your question.

Chuckwagon - Tue Aug 23, 2011 07:08

Hi Guys!
Crusty wrote:
Quote:
Can you PLEASE tell an old beginner what the exact difference is and what/how to use it?

Sure... happy to Crusty. Thanks for asking. Today, soy protein is used in sausage making as a binder - not to be confused as a filler. As comminuted meat and fat particles are covered with the fine powder (having the consistency of corn starch), soy protein prevents fats from amalgamating and its water-holding ability only increases the firmness of a meat product. The amount added should not exceed 2-1/2% as the flavor of sausage becomes altered, most people calling it “beany” tasting.

Soy protein has been around longer than most people think. In 1936 it was developed for use in fire extinguishers by the company that eventually became Kidde. The U.S. Navy called the foam product “bean soup” and used it to fight fires aboard ships throughout WWII as it was ideal for putting out gas and oil fires on aircraft carriers. In 1958, the Glidden Paint Company further tested the product and was the first to produce edible soy protein isolate in 1959. However, it wasn’t until 1987 that the product became a leading food additive as defatted soy flour was developed by a corporation named PTI. Later, DuPont Chemical (who owned Ralston-Purina), joined with General Mills creating the first marketed food-grade soy protein isolate. Not to be confused with soy protein concentrate or soy protein flour, the product known as soy protein isolate contains more than 90% protein and no other added ingredients. It is much stronger and more expensive than other soy protein powders. It binds 5 parts of water and is used in the food industry in other applications than in sausage making.

Soy protein concentrate is produced by immobilizing soy globulin proteins while allowing soluble carbohydrates to be leached from the defatted flakes along with whey and salts. With these removed, soy protein flour remains. Now, there is a lot of technical saddle-bum science going on to further create edible soy protein concentrate. It involves the removal of specific aqueous acids in something called the isoelectric zone of minimum protein solubility :shock: . And no kidding… it is achieved by the use of… (ta da)… alcohol! :mrgreen: When the science settles down, the consumer winds up with soy protein concentrate at about 70% protein… with other additives, including ash and fiber. :shock: Shucks, there’s even 1% oil in the stuff. It binds 4 part of water and it takes one ton of defatted soybean flour to make 1653 pounds of soy protein concentrate. The list of the uses for soy protein concentrate in every industry you can imagine today is as long as Uwanna’s Allysandra Salami! :wink:

In 1984, three years before “defatted soy flour” was developed by PTI, Rytek Kutas (referring to non-fat dry milk) wrote on page 159 of his “revised edition” book, “If you are going to use a non-fat dry milk for a binder, your local dairy is usually the only place you can buy it today. The milk has to be a very fine powder and not the granules used for making milk at home. Better still, it should have the consistency of corn starch.”

Although it does not have quite the binding power of soy protein, non-fat dry milk powder is half lactose (sugar) and is often used in making fermented type “dry-cured” sausages such as salami and pepperoni. Why? It is ideal in supplying essential sugar to the lactic acid producing bacteria pediococcus acidilactici and lactobacillus curvatus. Although it is 35% protein, it is also known for improving the taste of low-fat sausages.

I have heard of people buying grocery-store dry milk powder granules and pulverizing them inside a blender or food processor for use in prep-cooked-type sausages and semi-dry cured sausages. Many folks say they are not able to tell the difference. Personally, I’m not able to assess it because I am terribly allergic to lactose. However, you may choose it over soy protein. I just count myself lucky to be living in a time when modern science has developed a refined soy protein concentrate.

Best Wishes,
Chuckwagon

Jarhead - Tue Aug 23, 2011 11:20

Thanks CW, lots of info there. Give your fingers a rest and grab a cold barley pop.
Now, I consider myself ed-u-micated. :wink:

Chuckwagon - Tue Aug 23, 2011 11:59

Jarhead wrote:
Quote:
grab a cold barley pop

Hey Gunny, is that something like, "Colorado Kool-Aid"? :lol:

Jarhead - Tue Aug 23, 2011 12:04

Chuckwagon wrote:
Jarhead wrote:
Quote:
grab a cold barley pop

Hey Gunny, is that something like, "Colorado Kool-Aid"? :lol:

Naw, I like that St Louis Spring Water. :cool:

crustyo44 - Wed Aug 24, 2011 01:08

Hi CW,
Thank you for all that information. Lots of experimenting coming up, for this poor bastard anyway!!!!!!!!
Best Regards,
Jan.
Brisbane.

crustyo44 - Wed Sep 21, 2011 03:30

Hi CW,
Back again with this Soy question. A mate of mine can purchase SOY ISOLATE but after reading what you wrote, this is different than Soy Protein Concentrate. I am stuffed again!!!!!
After looking on the net, I couldn't help but laugh as it said that this Soy Isolate is also used for male enhancement.
Well, umm yes, at least I am on the proper sausage forum for advise.
Hopefully you can shed some light on this.
Best Regards,
Jan.
Brisbane.

Jarhead - Wed Sep 21, 2011 04:07

Jan, I'm laughing so hard, I hope I can see to type this.
Does that mean you can pulverize Viagra and use it for a binder? :roll:
BTW, I got the special meat binder in 3 days after it was supposed to be here. :mad:
Sorry, I know, "Family Friendly" :wink:

Chuckwagon - Wed Sep 21, 2011 11:58

Crusty wrote:
Quote:
After looking on the net, I couldn't help but laugh as it said that this Soy Isolate is also used for male enhancement. Well, umm yes, at least I am on the proper sausage forum for advise. Hopefully you can shed some light on this.

Crusty ol’ bud,
I wouldn’t touch this subject with a ten foot pole if it belonged to Uwanna and Patricia Arquette was holding it! :shock: However… (gulp)… I can try to explain a little more about soy protein isolate as opposed to soy protein concentrate.

Soy protein isolate contains at least 90% protein and no other ingredients. It is much stronger and more expensive. (It can bind 5 parts of water). In sausage, the recommended amount of soy protein isolate (as well as soy protein concentrate AND non-fat dry milk) is only 1% – 3% (10 – 30 g/kg). I would recommend sticking with the concentrate for sausage making for several reasons. It is the ideal nutrient for lactobacilli and pediococci and it is affordable.

Crumbling Hamburgers?

Have you ever wondered why the burgers down at “Al’s Malt Shop” always keep their shape as well as their juices? And just where does that particular special flavor come from? Whenever many people make a burger at home, it crumbles and shrinks and the juices remain upon the griddle as the burger is removed from the heat. The secret for making the best burgers is the addition of the natural “binding” power of soy protein concentrate. The product is natural and, as its name implies, it is simply concentrated soy bean protein. Soy protein binds comminuted (ground) meat together, and for that reason, it helps in retaining its natural juices. This of course, keeps it from shrinking.

It has one shortcoming only - the meat becomes a little more difficult to “sear” or brown while cooking. However, adding a little powdered dextrose or corn syrup solids, adding their own flavors as well, easily solves this problem. Please note these products are also “natural” and used in most commercial sausage kitchens today. Don’t be hesitant to use these products in your cooking as they are completely safe and contain no additives, preservatives, or foreign chemicals. Powdered dextrose is only 70% sweet as sugar and its weight forces itself into the cells of the meat more readily than other types of sugars, for complete distribution.

Years ago, the best burgers were charred outside and barely pink inside. Today, we must protect our guests against possible salmonella, listeria, e-coli, and a host of other bacteria, by cooking the burgers until their inside temperatures register 150 F. or thereabouts, allowing the “carryover” to finish bringing it up to a preferred temperature. Burgers are “medium” at this point. Here’s a good recipe for a tasty non-shrinkin’ burger that won’t fall apart on you:

Chuckwagon’s “Hip Shot” Hamburgers

2 lbs. pork shoulder
3 lbs beef chuck
1 tblspn. powdered dextrose
3 tblspns. soy protein concentrate
1-½ tblspns. un-iodized salt
1 tblspn. freshly ground black pepper
1/2 tspn. coriander
1/2 tspn. nutmeg
1/2 cup ice cold whole milk

Trim the shoulder and chuck and cut it into inch squares. Grind the nearly-frozen meat with its fat through a 3/8" plate. Mix all the other ingredients into the meat and distribute them thoroughly as you develop the actin and myocin. When pulled apart, the meat should be slightly sticky with soft peaks. Be careful not to over-mix the meat. Form 1/2 pound patties, flattening them evenly with a rolling pin. If you prefer burgers “griddle-fried in smoke”, simply place your portable griddle (or cast iron black skillet) on top of the grilling bars of your gas or charcoal grill using plenty of dampened hickory or other hardwood to provide the smudge. Try apple, mesquite, alder, and oak. Don’t even think about pressing the patties down while they’re cooking! Put them on the griddle and allow them to sear before turning them over. You should only have to turn them once.

Best Wishes,
Chuckwagon

JerBear - Wed Sep 21, 2011 21:21

I was having lots and lots of issues with texture in my sausages and tried various ways of cooking and preparing them and was about to give up. Loved the flavor, nasty texture. Anyway I decided to drop a couple bucks and try out the Special Meat Binder (phosphate) from Butcher Packer and don't know if I'll ever go back. I use it pretty much at the rate Chuckwagon mentions above (I go 2.36 g per 1 # sausage base).

Some of the bigger sausage companies use the phosphate as a way for them to add more liquid filler and extend the costly meat/fat, I just use it as an insurance policy and found it does an amazing job! No more thinking I was eating an eraser, much much more moisture stays inside the sausage so lots more moisture. Lots more forgiving during cooking (not that you shouldn't still be careful).

JerBear - Sat Sep 24, 2011 21:33

OK, I just learned on caveat of using Special Meat Binder. But first a little background. I typically don't link up my Italian sausage as my wife likes to use it in sauces and such so I normally bag 1# in a quart freezer bag and smoosh it flat for condensed storage.

I just pulled a pound out of the freezer for dinner (going to serve it mixed with peppers and onions on a hoagie roll with marinara) and dropped it in a preheated pan. However, I couldn't for the life of me break it up into little pieces like normal ground meat. The binder did such a good job that it wanted to hold together into a giant patty. I ultimately had to get it out of the pan, chop it up with my knife and add it back to the pan after the onions and peppers were cooked to my liking.

So next time: Binder good for links...bad for bulk.

Jarhead - Sun Sep 25, 2011 03:37

Thanks JerBear, for the info.
I haven't made the 2nd batch yet, but I will before November, when I head out to your neck o' da woods. (San Marcos and Barstow)

JerBear - Sun Sep 25, 2011 04:03

Nice, SoCal's awesome in November. While the rest of the US is in layers of down we're still in shorts and sandals. What're you coming out here for if you don't mind the inquiry?
Maz - Sun Sep 25, 2011 08:45

Something interesting about meat binder using deheated mustard flour, to deheat they heat up the flour to somewhere around 55 deg C. Other advantage is that the skins of the seed contain mucilage which help to bind the fat and water together. There are some mustard recipes for those that like to make their own. http://www.gsdunn.com/en/news :grin:
Chuckwagon - Sun Sep 25, 2011 09:01

Some time ago, our buddy Siara (Moderator in Poland), posted the following information about phosphates used in meat products.

New Aspects Of Inorganic Polyphosphate Metabolism And Function

This review analyzes the results of recent studies on the biochemistry of high-molecular inorganic poly-phosphates (PolyPs). The data obtained lead to the following main conclusions. PolyPs are polyfunctional compounds. The main role of PolyPs is their participation in the regulation of metabolism both at the genetic and metabolic levels. Among the functions of PolyPs known at present, the most important are the following: phosphate and energy storage; regulation of the levels of ATP and other nucleotide and nucleoside-containing coenzymes; participation in the regulation of homeostasis and storage of inorganic cations and other positively charged solutes in an osmotically inert form; participation in membrane transport processes mediated by poly-β-Ca2+-hydroxybutyrate complexes; participation in the formation and functions of cell surface structures; control of gene activity; and regulation of activities of the enzymes and enzyme assemblies involved in the metabolism of nucleic acids and other acid biopolymers. However, the functions of PolyPs vary among organisms of different evolutionary levels. The metabolism and functions of PolyPs in each cellular compartment of procaryotes (cell wall, plasma membrane, cytosol) and eucaryotes (nuclei, vacuoles, mitochondria, plasma membrane, cell wall, mitochondria, cytosol) are unique. The synthesis and degradation of PolyPs in the organelles of eucaryotic cells are possibly mediated by different sets of enzymes. This is consistent with of the endosymbiotic hypothesis of eucaryotic cell origin. Some aspects of the biochemistry of high-molecular PolyPs are considered to be of great significance to the approach to biotechnological, ecological and medical problems.
____________________________

Igor Kulaev, Vladimir Vagabov and Tatiana Kulakovskaya
G.K. Skryabin Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142292, Russia
Received 16 April 1999; accepted 22 May 1999. ; Available online 10 November 1999.

ssorllih - Sun Sep 25, 2011 14:11

I am going to have to read that about six more times before I understand it.
Jarhead - Sun Sep 25, 2011 14:28

JerBear wrote:
Nice, SoCal's awesome in November. While the rest of the US is in layers of down we're still in shorts and sandals. What're you coming out here for if you don't mind the inquiry?

Yeah I know about the weather. I was there off and on from 1970 through 1992 at El Toro.
I like our traffic jams a whole lot better here.
3 cars at a 4 way stop. :wink:
My boy and grandkids live in Barstow. My GF lives in San Marcos. :cry:
Planning a big Turkey Day get together AND I have to teach my boy how to cook. :cool:

CW, I'll be Googling those big words all day long to understand what you are saying.
MAYBE!

two_MN_kids - Mon Aug 27, 2012 14:37

Chuckwagon wrote:

Quote:
Crumbling Hamburgers?

Have you ever wondered why the burgers down at “Al’s Malt Shop” always keep their shape as well as their juices? And just where does that particular special flavor come from? Whenever many people make a burger at home, it crumbles and shrinks and the juices remain upon the griddle as the burger is removed from the heat. The secret for making the best burgers is the addition of the natural “binding” power of soy protein concentrate. The product is natural and, as its name implies, it is simply concentrated soy bean protein. Soy protein binds comminuted (ground) meat together, and for that reason, it helps in retaining its natural juices. This of course, keeps it from shrinking.

It has one shortcoming only - the meat becomes a little more difficult to “sear” or brown while cooking. However, adding a little powdered dextrose or corn syrup solids, adding their own flavors as well, easily solves this problem. Please note these products are also “natural” and used in most commercial sausage kitchens today. Don’t be hesitant to use these products in your cooking as they are completely safe and contain no additives, preservatives, or foreign chemicals. Powdered dextrose is only 70% sweet as sugar and its weight forces itself into the cells of the meat more readily than other types of sugars, for complete distribution.

Years ago, the best burgers were charred outside and barely pink inside. Today, we must protect our guests against possible salmonella, listeria, e-coli, and a host of other bacteria, by cooking the burgers until their inside temperatures register 150 F. or thereabouts, allowing the “carryover” to finish bringing it up to a preferred temperature. Burgers are “medium” at this point. Here’s a good recipe for a tasty non-shrinkin’ burger that won’t fall apart on you:

Chuckwagon’s “Hip Shot” Hamburgers

2 lbs. pork shoulder
3 lbs beef chuck
1 tblspn. powdered dextrose
3 tblspns. soy protein concentrate
1-½ tblspns. un-iodized salt
1 tblspn. freshly ground black pepper
1/2 tspn. coriander
1/2 tspn. nutmeg
1/2 cup ice cold whole milk

Trim the shoulder and chuck and cut it into inch squares. Grind the nearly-frozen meat with its fat through a 3/8" plate. Mix all the other ingredients into the meat and distribute them thoroughly as you develop the actin and myocin. When pulled apart, the meat should be slightly sticky with soft peaks. Be careful not to over-mix the meat. Form 1/2 pound patties, flattening them evenly with a rolling pin. If you prefer burgers “griddle-fried in smoke”, simply place your portable griddle (or cast iron black skillet) on top of the grilling bars of your gas or charcoal grill using plenty of dampened hickory or other hardwood to provide the smudge. Try apple, mesquite, alder, and oak. Don’t even think about pressing the patties down while they’re cooking! Put them on the griddle and allow them to sear before turning them over. You should only have to turn them once.

Best Wishes,
Chuckwagon


Dang Hoss! These were GOOD! :mrgreen: I mixed up a half batch yesterday. I overcooked them to 160 and still they were fantastic. :oops:

I think these will these freeze okay if pressed out and separated with papers. Five pounds is a large batch unless all the kids are coming for dinner, and bringing friends! :grin:

Jim

Chuckwagon - Tue Aug 28, 2012 04:38

Hi Jim,
Thanks for your feedback on this recipe. I really appreciate it and I’m glad you enjoyed my Hipshot Hamburgers. I’ve grilled these for a few parties where my guests have just gone haywire over them. One guy asked my wife if he could move in with us. Another guy got down on one knee and “proposed” to ME. Everyone chuckled when I told him I was going to give him an “Eastern Utah size 12 Justin leather enema” (boot in the butt), and ran him out of the kitchen.
When I posted the recipe on line, I thought more folks would try them, but I didn’t get any response. That’s the way it is with some recipes... The ones you think people will really like, are sometimes the ones they tend to overlook. Other times, folks will make a fuss over the most simple combinations. Hipshot Hamburgers are tasty little devils and very much worth making. But I think everyone pretty much has their own favorite formulas when it comes to burgers and just sort of skipped over this one. I’m really glad you tried it… and super happy that you liked it enough to mention it. You just made my whole day. Thanks pard!

Best Wishes,
Chuckwagon


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