[USA] Chorizo Corner (Section 3) Chapters 7 - 8

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[USA] Chorizo Corner (Section 3) Chapters 7 - 8

Post by Chuckwagon » Thu Apr 18, 2013 00:44

Chapter 7 - Chorizos of Uruguay and Argentina
Introducing Uruguay
Uruguay - Making Chorizos
Argentina - Common Chorizos
Traditional Argentine Chorizo:
Tres Recetas de Chorizos parrilleros (Three Grilled Chorizo Recipes)

Introducing Uruguay
One of many interesting items concerning Uruguay is that is so isolated. No! Wait! That`s Paraguay. We geographically-impaired foreigners mix the two up, frequently. According again to Wikipedia, Uruguay is a country in the southeastern part of South America, home to 3.3 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the capital, Montevideo, and surroundings. An estimated 88% of the population are of European descent.

Asado is the national dish, according to Wikipedia again, barbecued beef. "The meat for an asado is not marinated, the only preparation being the application of salt before and/or during the cooking period. Also, the heat and distance from the coals are controlled to provide a slow cooking; it usually takes around two hours to cook asado. Further, grease from the meat is not encouraged to fall on the coals and create smoke which would adversely flavor the meat."

Consequently, the settlers don`t quite "fit the mold." Again from Wikipedia, "most Uruguayans of European ancestry are descendants of 19th and 20th century immigrants from Spain and Italy (about one-quarter of the population is of Italian origin) ... Few direct descendants of Uruguay's indigenous peoples remain..." The following recipe is pretty casual. That may reflect an Italian influence. Who knows.

Uruguay - Haciendo Chorizos (Making Chorizos)
...almost got you, there, huh? It`s the present participle of the verb "hacer," to make or to do. That explains the origin of the word "hacienda," which means ranch, estate, or plantation.
Carne molida de vaca 60%__________________60% ground beef
Carne molida de cerdo 40%___________________40% ground pork
Adobo____________________________________Adobo seasoning (see below)
Pimienta__________________________________Black pepper
Tripa p/embutido___________________________Hog casing for sausage

Preparation is similarly vague, "Prepare it to your liking, so you can find the flavor that you like most. Then write it down...." Stuff as usual.
Owing to the lack of peppers other than black pepper (and a little paprika in the adobo), this might more properly be called longaniza. Adobo, "seasoning," is a generic term referring to a mixture of paprika, oregano, salt, and garlic in dry form, often with vinegar added. Proportions vary widely. Popular brand Goya is widely available in the United States, as are several other brands. It is simple to make.

ARGENTINA - Common Chorizos
After that embarrassment of quoting a chorizo recipe for Chile, then finding out that it was probably from Argentina, it`s time to try again. ...hopefully with something both representative and a little different. At the very least, we can examine my assumption, that beef, rather than pork, takes center stage.

In Argentina (see http://www.bedri.es/Comer_y_beber/Conse ... horizo.htm ), some of the typical chorizo sausages are the "chorizo parrillero" ("grilled sausage," either a fresh sausage, or a dried, smoked, then roasted slowly sausage) and the "chorizo bombón" which is a not very widely available, often more spicy, grilled chorizo.

A sausage sandwich called "choripán," which is claimed to have been invented in Argentina, became popular in Paraguay and Uruguay, and later in Bolivia, Chile, and Peru. It consists of chorizo (the "chori" part) sandwiched between two halves of French bread (pan is Spanish for bread)or other round white bread bun. Many seasonings are popular, chimichurri being the most popular in Argentina. Mushrooms, pickles, pepper, mayonnaise, picante salsa, etc. are often added. The sausage is often served "butterflied," that is, cut in a longitudinal manner without completely separating the two sides.

According to Wikipedia again, chimichurri is made from finely chopped parsley, minced garlic, olive oil, oregano, and white or red vinegar. Additional flavorings such as cilantro, paprika, cumin, thyme, lemon, and bay leaf may be included. In its red version, tomato and red bell pepper may also be added.

In Argentina there are varieties of sausages like those of Spain, among these the most common are the "chorizo colorado" and "chorizo candelario." A recipe for the fermented "chorizo colorado" may be found at http://www.sindy.com.ar/recetas/como-ha ... mpalo.html The "chorizo candelario" (originating in the province of Salamanca, Spain) is described at http://www.directodelcampo.com/noticias ... 90nfa.html as a dried, smoked sausage in a simple recipe as follows:
Para elaborar el chorizo son necesarios los siguientes ingredientes:
To make chorizo, the following ingredients are necessary:
Carne de cerdo magra y gorda picada (Minced Pork lean and fat)
Harina (Flour)
Ajos pelados (peeled garlic)
Vino blanco (white wine)
Sal (salt)
Amasar todos los ingredientes con el vino y dejarlo durante un día bien cubierto. (Knead all the ingredients with the wine and leave them tightly covered for a day.) Al día siguiente hay que rellenar las tripas de vaca o cerdo y una vez hecha la masa, hay que ponerla a secar al humo. (The next day, stuff beef or pork sausage casing and once the mass is made, put it to dry in smoke.)

We won`t discuss chorizo candelario further, as it appears to be a Spanish sausage. (Perhaps in a future publication...?) Please note that, if you intend to fix this as a dried, smoked sausage, it is absolutely essential that you add the proper amount of cure #1 or cure #2. This is best covered in the Marianskis` books, and since we are primarily discussing fresh sausages in this piece, we won`t go into the details.

Here`s a fresh sausage version of chorizo Colorado from http://www.utilisima.com/recetas/1030-c ... resco.html
___________Ingredientes____________________1 kg recipe_____1 kg meat basis
Ají molido 1 cdita____________1 tsp ground Aji chile____0.83 gm_________0.91 gm
Ajo en polvo 1/2 cda__________1/2 Tbsp garlic poder_____1.04 gm_________1.14 gm
Carne de vaca magra 1 kg______1 kg ground beef_______0.42 kg_________0.45 Kg
Carne de cerdo magra 500 g____1/2 kg ground pork_______0.21 kg_________0.23 kg
Orégano 1 cdita______________1 tsp oregano__________0.62 gm_________0.68 gm
Panceta 700 gm______________700 gm bacon__________0.29 kg_________0.32 kg
Pimentón dulce 6 cdas_________6 Tbsp sweet paprika____15.6 gm_________17.0 gm
Pimienta negra 1/2 cda________1/2 Tbsp black pepper_____1.25 gm_________1.36 gm
Sal fina 3 cdas________________3 Tbsp salt____________22.5 gm_________24.5 gm
Tripa chinesca calibre 40 5 m____hog casing, 40mm, 5 meters
Vino blanco 100 cc____________100 ml white wine______42 ml_________45 ml

Picar las carnes junto con la panceta alternando en la picadora con un disco de 8 mm. Colocar en un bol y agregar el vino, las especias y la sal. Mezclar para distribuir los ingredientes con guantes de latex.
(Grind the meats together with the bacon alternating in the grinder with an 8MM plate. Put all into a bowl and add the wine, the spices, and the salt. Mix to distribute the ingredients by hand, wearing latex gloves.)

Importante: las carnes y la panceta deben entrar a la picadora lo mas fríos posibles.
(Important: the meats and bacon should be fed to the grinder as cold as possible.)

Lavar la tripa y hacer circular el agua dentro de la misma. Dejar en remojo en agua tibia de 10 a 15 minutos. Escurrir y colocar en la maquina para proceder a embutir el chorizo. Importante: embutir sin dejar aire y no muy apretado para que no se rompa la tripa.
(Wash the casing and flush with water. Soak in water for 10 or 15 minutes. Remove and load onto the stuffer to stuff the chorizo. Important: Fill without introducing air and not packed very tight so it won`t blow out the casing.)

Atar los chorizos cada 10 cm de largo, con hilo choricero. Conservación 7 días en la heladera o 6 meses en el freezer. (Tie the chorizo links 10 cm long with butchers` twine. Store up to 7 days in the refrigerator or 6 months in the freezer.)
And here`s a grilling chorizo, "chorizo parrillero," from the same website, http://www.utilisima.com/recetas/11249- ... llero.html
___________Ingredientes_______________1 kg recipe_____1 kg meat basis
Vino tinto 300 cc________red wine____________67 ml_______75 ml
Laurel 1 hoja___________1 bay leaf___________1/2_________1/2
Ajo 4 dientes___________4 cloves garlic________4.5 gm______5.0 gm
Sal 4 cdas______________4 Tbsp salt___________17.9 gm_____20.0 gm
Azúcar 2 cdas___________2 Tbsp sugar_________6.7 gm______7.5 gm
Ají molido 2 cda_________2 Tbsp Aji chile_______2.8 gm______3.12 gm
Coriandro 2 cdas________2 Tbsp coriander______3.35 gm_____3.75 gm
Orégano 8 cdas ________8 Tbsp oregano________1.34 gm_____1.5 gm
Comino 1 cda__________1 Tbsp cumin__________1.34 gm_____1.5 gm
Fécula de maíz 2 cdas____2 Tbsp corn starch______1.34 gm_____1.5 gm
Carne de cerdo 1,4 k_____1.4 kg ground pork______0.32 kg_____0.35 kg
Carne de vaca 1,4 k______1.4 kg ground beef______0.32 kg_____0.35 kg
Papada de cerdo 1,2 k____1.2 kg pork jowl________0.26 kg______0.30 kg
Tripa chinesca calibre 32 6 metros

Hervir el vino con el laurel y el ajo por 2 minutos, hasta que se evapore el alcohol. Dejar enfriar, retirar el laurel y agregar la sal. Combinar todos los condimentos en un tazón. Agregar la fécula. Picar las carnes, intercalando la papada de cerdo, en una máquina para picar equipada con un disco de 8 mm. Añadir el vino y mezclar ligeramente. Incorporar los condimentos e integrar bien. (Boil the wine with the bay leaf and garlic for 2 minutes, until the alcohol evaporates. When cool, remove the bay leaf and add salt. Combine all the ingredients in a bowl. Add the corn starch. Chop the meat and pork jowls, alternately, in a grinder equipped with a plate with 8 mm holes. Add the wine to the meat and mix gently. Add the remaining ingredientss and mix well well.)

Lavar la tripa bajo el grifo, haciendo circular el agua por su interior. Remojar en agua tibia durante 10 minutos. Escurrir y colocar en la máquina para embutir. Rellenar la tripa, sin dejar aire. Atar formando unidades de 10 cm de largo, con nudos equidistantes. Nota: Conservar en la heladera hasta 7 días o en freezer por 6 meses como máximo. (Wash the casing and flush with water. Soak in water for 10 minutes. Remove and load onto the stuffer to stuff the chorizo. Fill without introducing air. Tie the chorizo links 10 cm long in equal links. Store up to 7 days in the refrigerator or 6 months in the freezer.)
Traditional Argentine Chorizo:
Here are two recipes from http://www.taringa.net/posts/recetas-y- ... acion.html which claim to be old, traditional Argentine recipes. The "criollo" style generally means that, rather than being fermented or dried, they are "fresh" sausages which must be cooked before eating. However, note the use of nitrate. This implies that they were allowed to ferment and dry. Although both recipes are purported to be traditional, the same exact recipes are all over the internet, leading me to suspect that they`re both good but not quite historically accurate. ...interesting, though. Let`s look at them, then try a different, more recent one below them.

Note the use of aji peppers. The first, chorizo criollo y de cerdo (Creole chorizo of pork), as well as the second (Creole beef & pork chorizo) are said to have first been written down by Robert Joseph Herrlein, a descendant of the Volga Germans who settled in Argentina two centuries ago. Translating these old recipes is a delightful lesson in how writing formality has changed, not necessarily for the better.
Recipe: Chorizo Criollo y de Cerdo (Creole chorizo of pork)
Ingredientes para 10 kilos de chorizos.
_______Ingredient_____________________________________1 Kg (total) Recipe_____1 Kg (meat basis)
8 kilos carne de cerdo. _________________Pork meat____________0.748 gm ___0.80 kg
2 kilos tocino de cerdo. ________________Pork fat_______________0.188 kg____0.20 kg
220 gr. sal. __________________________Salt__________________20.6 gm____222.0 gm
50 gr ají molido. _____________________Ground aji pepper_______4.7 gm______5.0 gm
20 gr pimienta negra molida. ___________Ground black pepper_____1.9 gm______2.0 gm
10 gr nuez moscada molida. ____________Ground nutmeg_________0.9 gm_______1.0 gm
30 gr orégano (opcional). _______________Oregano (optional)_____2.8 gm____3.0 gm
Una cabeza chica (small head) ajo_________Garlic_______________9.4 gm______10.0 gm
1 vaso (cup) vino blanco o tinto.__________White or red wine_____22 ml_______24 ml
Semillas (seeds) hinojo salvaje___________Wild fennel __________0.4 gm_____0.5 gm
______(Importantísimo para el sabor y el aroma)
______(most important for flavor and aroma)
15/17 metros tripa salada para embutir. ___Salted hog casing for stuffing
5 gr nitrato de sodio.____________________Sodium nitrate DO NOT USE (see below)

NOTE that this is an old recipe, and the sodium nitrate cure must be carefully measured to modern standards. For smoking only, nitrite (as cure #1) is more appropriate. Add 2.5 grams of cure #1 to the 1-kg meat basis recipe to give 156 ppm nitrite.

Con una máquina tritura carne y disco grueso, pique la carne hecha trozos, luego el tocino. Vierta todo en un fuentón y agregue todos los condimentos. Mezcle y amase. Coarsely grind the meat and fat. Pour into a bowl. Add all the seasonings. Mix and knead.
Caliente el vino y agréguele los dientes de ajo bien picados y sin hervir cocine tres minutos. Cuele, deseche el líquido e incorpórelos a la preparación volviendo a amasar. Conserve en la heladera no tan fría hasta el día siguiente. (*)Heat the wine, add the minced garlic and cook three minutes without boiling. Strain, discard the liquid, and incorporate them (garlic cloves) into the preparation. Knead again. Store in the "not very cold freezer" (refrigerator) overnight. (Written before the modern refrigerator was invented.) (*)

La preparación de la tripa se hace desalándola con abundante agua corriente, luego se sumerge en agua con el nitrito disuelto para evitar una indeseada putrefacción. Previo el rellenado cuélguela para que se escurra bien. The intestine is de-salted with running water, then dipped in water with nitrite dissolved in it to prevent unwanted putrefaction. Before filling, hang to drain well. (Written before salted casing was widely available.)

El rellenado puede hacerlo con un simple embudo, bastante grande, juntando la tripa en el pico del mismo, haciendo que se desfile durante el llenado que no debe ser muy apretado. The filling can be done with a simple funnel, large enough, gathering the gut at the peak of it. In allowing it to extend during filling, it should not be too tight.

La distancia de la atadura de cada chorizo es a gusto del consumidor, generalmente de 13 a 15 centímetros para que no se diga que se está sirviendo una miseria... Hágalos descansar un día al gancho y en la heladera. The distance of the binding of each sausage is a taste of the consumer, usually from 13 to 15 centimeters so it does not say who is serving a pittance (i.e. don`t let the server look stingy!) ... Allow them to rest a day on hooks in the refrigerator.

Es preferible asarlos a la parrilla con brasas de madera dura, generalmente durante 15 minutos de cada lado, sin pincharlos, para que se cocinen con sus propio jugo.[/i It is preferable to grill these over hardwood coals, usually for 15 minutes on each side, not pierced, to cook their own juice.

The asterisk is as follows:
(*) Una buena alternativa es la del señor Raúl Marozzi que pone el ajo triturado en el vino y luego lo cuela, tira el ajo y pone el vino con sabor a ajo en la preparación. porque me dice que el ajo se oxida y no conviene ponerlo en la mezcla.(*) A good alternative is to put crushed garlic in the wine and then strain it out, throw it away, and put the wine flavored with garlic into the mix (because garlic is oxidized and should not be put into the mixture).

The anonymous transcriber notes that he or she personally prefers to cut the pork fat into small pieces with a knife so it more resembles the large fat pieces in salami.

Chorizo Criollo y de Cerdo y Rez (Creole Mixed Chorizo of Pork and Beef)
Our next recipe, another tradional old one supposedly from the same author, combines beef and pork. This might be expected in beef-happy Argentina. Again, note the caution on the use of nitrate.

Ingredientes para 10 kilos de chorizos.

_____________Ingredient___________________1 Kg (total) Recipe______________1 Kg (meat basis)
4 kilos carne de cerdo. _______Pork meat__________0.376 gm_____0.400 kg
2 kilos tocino de cerdo. _______Pork fat____________0.188 gm_____0.200 kg
4 kilos carne de vaca. ________Beef_______________0.376 gm_____0.400 kg
220 gr sal. __________________Salt_______________20.7 gm_____22.0 gm
50 gr ají molido._____________Ground aji pepper____4.7 gm____5.0 gm
20 gr pimienta negra molida. ___Ground black pepper_1.9 gm____2.0 gm
10 gr nuez moscada molida. ____Ground nutmeg_____0.9 gm____1.0 gm
Una cabeza chica (75 gm) ajo___small head garlic____7.1 gm_____7.5 gm
1 vaso (cup) vino blanco o tinto._White or red wine___22 ml_____24 ml
Semillas (seeds hinojo salvaje.__Wild fennel ________0.5 gm_____0.5 gm
__(Se puede remplazar con kummel. ___(substitute caraway)
15/17 metros tripa salada para embutir. ___Salted hog casing for stuffing
5 gr nitrato de sodio. _________________Sodium nitrate______DO NOT USE (see below)

Again, NOTE that this is an old recipe, and the sodium nitrate cure must be carefully measured to modern standards. For this recipe, natural drying and fermenting is called for. See other references for the amount of cure #2 to be added. Curing sausages by the described method is beyond the scope of this article. If you wish to smoke this sausage, use 2.5 grams of cure #1 for the 1 kg meat basis recipe.

Use the same instructions as the recipe immediately above.
The author notes the following:
Estos chorizos son preferidos aca en Argentina a los de puro cerdo para ser secados durante al menos 40 días, en un lugar seco, fresco y poco ventilado. En el día 41 pueden recibir el primer corte, oblicuamente, para comprobar la consistencia, el aroma, y el sabor.These (pork/beef) sausages are preferred in Argentina to pure pork. They should be cured for at least 40 days in a dry, cool and poorly ventilated place. On day 41, they can receive the first cut, obliquely, to check the consistency, aroma, and flavor.

Tres Recetas de Chorizos parrilleros (Three Grilled Chorizo Recipes)
Remember, from above, that most chorizos in Argentina are grilled? Well, here`s the reference to that one from (http://www.recetasgratis.net/Receta-de- ... 12194.html which promised to be a bit more representative of popular culture. Unfortunately, it is circulating on the internet as being from Chile as well as Argentina, and has already been described in the chapter on Chile. Sorry about that oversight.

Instead, let`s try two other recipes (hopefully from Argentina). One termed "chorizo" half beef, half pork, and the other, the "longaniza," is 20% beef. ...in case anyone is counting.

Chorizo Parrillero al Morrón (Grilled Red Pepper Chorizo)_____________Ingredient___________________1 Kg (total) Recipe______________1 Kg (meat basis)
400 g de carne de cerdo______________pork_____0.33 kg____0.40 kg
400 g de carne vacuna_______________beef______0.33 kg____0.40 kg
200 g de gordura de cerdo____________pork fat______0.16 kg____0.20 kg
1 cda colmada de sal________________salt______17.9 gm_____22.0 gm
1 cda de azúcar____________________Sugar______17.9 gm_____22.0 gm
1 cda colmada de almidón de maíz_____Corn Starch____9.8 gm____12.0 gm
4 cdas de pimiento morrón picado______red bell pepper______6.1 gm___7.5 gm
1 cda de ají molido__________________aji chile______4.1 gm____5.0 gm
1 cdta de coriandro__________________coriander______4.9 gm____6.0 gm
1/2 cdta de pimiento__________________bell pepper______6.1 gm___7.5 gm
125 cc de vino tinto__________________red wine______102 ml____125 ml
4 dientes de ajo_____________________garlic______16.3 gm____20.0 gm
2 hojas de laurel____________________bay leaves______2______2

Llevar a hervir el vino con los dientes de ajo y el laurel hasta que evapore el alcohol. Mezclar todos los condimentos e incorporar las carnes y gordura trozada, seguimos mezclando hasta que no quede condimento en la base del recipiente, por último incorporar el vino hervido y frío. Pasamos esta preparación por maquina de picar carne, una vez picada mezclar ligeramente. Hidratamos la tripa con agua tibia y dejamos correr agua en su interior. Calzamos la tripa en la maquina de embutir y comenzamos a llenar los chorizos, formar chorizos del tamaño deseado. Pinchar se quedan chorizos con aire. Boil the wine with the garlic and bay leaf until the alcohol evaporates. Mix all the ingredients and incorporate meat and fat, continue mixing until no liquid is left, Pass this preparation through the meat grinder once. Moisturize the gut with warm water and let water run inside. Fit the gut in the machine started to fill stuffing sausages, chorizos forming the desired size. Puncture any chorizos which contain air.Store in refrigerator up to 1 week, Freezer 2 months

Look how Little difference there is between chorizo and longaniza in Argentina.

Longaniza parrillera
1 kilo carne cerdo pork
250 grs carne vaca beef
300 grs gordura cerdo pork fat
1 1/2 cucharada sal salt
1 cucharada azúcar sugar
1 cda de almidón de maíz corn starch
1 cucharada semillas hinojo fennel seeds
1/2 cucharada ají molido aji
1/2 pimienta negra black pepper
1/2 cucharada nuez moscada nutmeg
125 cc vino tinto red wine
100 cc agua water
4 dientes ajo garlic
3 hojas laurel bay leaves
2 metros tripa chinesca ( varía según calibre) hog casing (various sizes)
hilo choricero butchers` twine

Para trabajar con productos frescos es de suma importancia que la temperatura de la carne no sea superior a los 2°C , en todo el proceso de elaboración. Ponemos a hervir el agua y el vino junto con los ajos machacados y el laurel. Dejamos enfriar y retiramos los ajos. Picamos las carnes y las gorduras del tamaño de una avellana, con máquina eléctrica o en forma manual. Comenzamos a mezclar las carnes y vamos incorporando incorporando el líquido obtenido y los condimentos hasta lograr una pasta homogénea. Dejamos reposar en la heladera 2 horas o de un día para otro. To work with fresh sausage products, it is of greatest importance that the temperature of the meat not be higher than 2 degrees C, in the whole manufacturing process. Boil the water and wine with crushed garlic and bay leaf. Let cool and remove the garlic. Chop meat and fats the size of a hazelnut, with electric machine or by hand. Start to mix meat and incorporate the liquid and dry seasonings. Mix until a smooth paste is obtained. Let stand in refrigerator 2 hours or overnight.

Embutido: Hidratamos la tripa abriéndola de un extremo, dejando ingresar un chorro de agua de la canilla y, este chorro, lo hacemos correr a lo largo de toda la tripa. Colocamos la tripa en un recipiente con agua para que continúe dilatando. Luego ubicamos la tripa dilatada en el embutidor, comenzamos a poner la carne en la máquina y embutimos.
Atado: Realizamos con hilo un nudo en un extremo y con el mismo hilo vamos realizando lazadas equidistantes de 20 cm a lo largo de toda la tripa. Conservar en heladera no más de 7 días. O frisar hasta 6 meses.
Note: moisturize the casing, opening it from one end, by leaving a stream of water entering one and and running throughout the gut. Put the casing in a bowl of water to continue hydrating. Then place the casing on the stuffer, start putting meat into the machine, and stuff.
Tying knots: Tie butchers` twine at one end and with the same twine make loops equidistant 20 cm apart along the entire casing. Store in refrigerator no longer than 7 days. Or freeze for up to 6 months.

This should give you plenty of feel for the chorizos of Argentina. One interesting note: hog casing is called "tripa chinesca," or literally "Chinese-style tripe," in Argentina. What do you bet that there`s an interesting tale in how that expression came about?

Chapter 8 - CHORIZO - Various Topics
... Grinding chiles versus other spices
... Using vinegar without impeding sausage protein "development"...
... A fermented, semi-dry chorizo
... Salt levels
... Volume conversions
... Pepper Types and Amounts
... "News of the Bizarre:" An unusual Canary Islands chorizo
... Grinding Spices and Chiles
If you process dried chiles, you will find that they often are leathery, rather than hard. They don`t do well in a blender, like softer materials such as raw garlic or onion. Blenders, believe it or not, are too gentle!

Finely grind the chiles, dry, in a coffee grinder. This fine grind allows them to disperse better, allowing for better color and flavor development. Tear pieces off and grind them in a spice (formerly coffee) grinder. I tried the technique of running them in a blender with some water, but it didn`t grind the leathery things very well.

The blender technique works great for softer vegetables and the like, so by all means use it. You can always add the finely-divided spices to the blender solution. Just don`t depend on the blender to do the grinding work on the chiles.

Using Vinegar Without Impeding Sausage Protein "Development"
In some recipes, notably the Mexican chorizos, you will be adding vinegar instead of water. An acid environment interferes with the development of the proteins, causing the sausage mince to separate and become grainy instead of bind together in what we usually associate with European sausage texture.

Grind spices and such separately. Dissolve the salt and cure in the vinegar (which is 94% water). Then, first work the spices in by hand until the actin and myosin develop ("stiff peaks"). Then, second, add the vinegar/salt/cure mixture and mix well enough to disperse the liquid. Some tackiness will remain, but the acid environment doesn`t reduce it entirely. This is normal. ...better than the alternative, which is no binding at all.

A Fermented, Semi-Dry Chorizo:
This recipe was featured in sausage making forum wedlinydomowe.pl/en as the next logical step from fresh and smoked/cooked chorizo toward traditional, fermented dry chorizo. The recipe noted in "Our Own Tex/Mex Blend, above was changed only slightly, leaving out the vinegar and adding Bactoferm™ LHP culture and a small amount of sugar. The result is a tangy taste without the vinegar, due instead to lactic acid. The LHP culture is fast-acting, unlike the slow fermentation of true chorizo. The recipe, in my opinion, could use some adjustment, but the result illustrates well what the transition between the two types of sausage is- - relatively minor in ingredients, and extra (but not too much extra) effort. The recipe, and "Chuckwagon`s" notes, follow.

El DuckO`s "Azul Chorizo Chabacano" (Type 3 - "Semi-Dry Cured)
800 gm pork (fat trimmings removed)
200 gm pork trimmings
10.6 gm non-iodized salt (reduce if using cure) (see salt cautions below)
2.7 gm cure #1
0.24 gm Bactoferm™ LHP culture
9.0 gm sugar
0.7 gm pepper (black)
17.6 gm garlic (6 medium cloves - fresh)
21.2 gm chile- ancho (remove stems & seeds, grind)
11.5 gm chile-pasillo (remove stems & seeds, grind)
0.2 gm cloves (ground)
0.6 gm coriander (ground)
0.4 gm cumin (ground)
0.4 gm oregano
6.9 gm paprika (sweet)

Crush the garlic slightly and soak it in hot water while you grind the meat through a large (1/2") plate. Dissolve the salt and the cure #1 in the vinegar, mince the garlic and chiles, and then combine them with all the remaining ingredients, mixing them thoroughly throughout the meat.
If you choose to lighten up on the vinegar, (looks like we do without vinegar entirely, because the tang is supplied by the ferment,)mix the cure into a half-cup of ice water instead. Season the mixture a day or two in the refrigerator, then stuff it into 32 - 36 mm hog casings, making traditional 8" links.

Place one pound of regular table salt onto a cookie sheet with a lip around it. Spread the salt out evenly and add just enough water to barely cover the salt. Place the cookie sheet and salt in the bottom of an old fridge or your home kitchen oven. Keep the oven warm by using the pilot light in a gas model, or a hundred-watt light bulb covered with a large coffee can with several holes drilled in it. This will produce a warm area for a 2-day fermentation period at about 70% humidity.

When you are ready to smoke-cook the sausages, hang them at room temperature until they warm just a bit while you pre-heat your smokehouse to 130°F. Wipe any condensation from the sausages, being sure they are dry to the touch before they go into the smoker. Place the sausages into the smokehouse for an hour then introduce hickory smoke with the dampers 1/4 open. Slowly, only a few degrees every twenty minutes, raise the smokehouse temperature until the internal meat temperature registers 148°F. At this point, I cannot stress enough, the importance of patience. Please do not try to rush the process by elevating the heat too much or too quickly. The success or failure of the product will be determined by how you prep-cook the meat at this point. Do not "break" the fat or you will have expensive sawdust. There may be a temperature "stall" somewhere during the mid-140`s and as the meat-temperature finally nears 148 degrees, it may do so quickly, so keep your eye on the thermometer and do not allow the temperature to go above this mark. Cool the sausages in a little ice water and then dry them. Store them in the refrigerator at least 8 hours, until you are ready to grill them.

If you haven`t started making this part of the recipe, do it now. It is important to remember that even though the sausage has been cured, it doesn`t mean that it will remain edible outside the refrigerator. This remains a perishable product and must be refrigerated and used within a few days, or frozen until you are ready to grill in the near future. It`s your job at this point to make a couple of pounds of this delicious sausage with the proper amount of sodium nitrite in it. This will change the entire structure of the meat and quality of the sausage as you will see.

In his book, "Home Production Of Quality Meats And Sausages", author Stan Marianski stated: "All sausages can be smoked or not. Semi-dry sausages are smoked with hot smoke. What was once an important preservation step has become a matter of personal preference. If you like the smoky flavor, smoke the sausage, it`s that simple."

During sausage and meat smoking, most people encounter a "stall" at around 140 degrees F. Some suggest that this "stall" is due to the moisture in the meat evaporating. The process is similar to water boiling, in that the temperature can`t physically rise any higher until all the water has been vaporized. In this case, though, the limiting step is not heat uptake, as occurs in boiling. Rather, it is diffusion. Water is diffusing through the mince toward the outside, migrating from the interior to the surface if you will, then evaporating. In evaporating, it cools the surface of the meat. Evaporation is fast, whereas diffusion is slow. This is a natural process, potentially hindered by all sorts of slow rate steps. At this point in the process, the overall (limiting) step is a diffusional limitation. [...lots of unnecessary engineering verbiage deleted here. Go do your dissertation elsewhere!] At any rate, pushing it only results in ruin, so don`t try. Be patient. Your goal is a leisurely approach to that final "internal meat temperature," or IMT. Reaching it is important. Reaching it fast is NOT.

Salt Levels
Several people have suggested that my fresh sausage recipe salt levels are often too low. This is a matter of debate. Stan Marianski and Rytek Kutas say that 3% is probably the maximum amount you should use for palatability, and suggest 1.5% non-iodized salt. Some people, my wife and family included, prefer a low sodium diet. When in doubt, you should probably shoot for 1.5%. Note, however, that my recipes will not always have the same amount as yours. Don`t forget to compensate for the salt content in cured sausages! Both Cure #1 and #2 contain a large amount of salt.

I once got into a heated discussion with a http://wedlinydomowe.pl/en/ forum member who, as it turns out, is experienced in butchery and charcuterie. This turned out to be very beneficial, as it brought salt to light as one of the foundations of meat curing. As "Baconologist" correctly pointed out (let`s quote Marianskis here, "Home Preparation of Quality Meats and Sausages," Chapter 11, page 143, "Sausage Making Process," the following:

The proper amount of salt in meat (tastes pleasant) is between 1.5 - 2% and 3.5% will be the upper limit of acceptability, anything more and the product will be too salty. There is less room for compromise in making fermented sausages where salt is used as a safety hurdle to prevent the growth of bacteria in the first stage of processing. Dry sausages require about 3% of salt and semi-dry around 2.5%. Usually, most home sausage makers omit the curing step. This can be attributed to the lack of information available on curing meats for sausages as many recipes on the internet are very amateurish at best."

...and of course, nearly everything you have read so far has been from the internet. Therefore, I warn you: be sure to take seriously the guidelines about cleanliness, and be sure to either consume or freeze your fresh sausage recipe in four days or less.

...and as for that semi-dry recipe above: the salt level is relatively low, so consume it or freeze it it as you would a fresh sausage recipe, within four days.

Volume conversions:
I try. Honestly, I do. It`s hard. When in doubt, use your own conversion factor for my recipes. Take a one tablespoon amount of any given herb, spice, or whatever and weigh it. Chances are that (1) you`ll get a different density than I used, and (2) you`ll get a different density that the original author used.

What to do? ...plow onward. If you like the way a recipe is headed, tinker. Boost or reduce the amount of various spices. It`s optimum when you achieve what YOU prefer. If it tastes good, try again until it tastes great!

Pepper types and amounts:
My biggest problem is deciding how much of which peppers to use. I have ambitions of one day trying to see if Scoville scale can be correlated with anything else, including taste. The best way to do that is to make a series of sausage mixes, varying the amount of the various types of chiles, until you reach whatever taste level you prefer. Write it down. Maybe you can develop a cluster of data points for different peppers. But how do you quantify "I like this" in numbers? Well, if Scoville could do this for a numeric scale, surely someone else can for "tasty" chiles. Please hurry. The Nobel Prize awaits, possibly. (On the other hand, the Nobel money came from manufacturing dynamite.)

I`ve tried averaging Scoville numbers when substituting various chiles for each other, but with limited success. It seems to work with chiles that are roughly the same Scoville number (within, say, a factor of 10). It fails miserably for wider ranges. I thought I might try a logarithmic scale, but reality intruded. What are we REALLY trying to do? In all honesty, it`s the flavor that we`re after, not whether we can administer a fatal dose or not. (For you environmental exposure types, the LD-50 lethal dose is NOT what we`re after.)

So, substitute based on flavor, rather than "heat." Average based on Scoville number if you are the type who must (spreadsheet addicts beware), but I would advocate staying close, substituting similar peppers where you can. If smoked peppers are called for (such as chipotle), substitute a different smoked pepper. Explore the various types of paprika. Don`t forget to try fresh versus dried peppers, especially for the lower-heat varieties. Try toasting `em versus not bothering. There`s a whole new world out there, just waiting for you.

News of the Bizarre: Las Canarias (Canary Islands)
I had to put this in here, although you may wish that I didn`t. When you rattle around on the internet enough, you run across all sorts of things that catch your attention, although you wish they wouldn`t. Here`s one from a Spanish possession, the Canary Islands, "Las Canarias." Read the story, then judge.

El chorizo de perro o chorizo perrero (Dog Chorizo, or Dog Catcher Chorizo)
(http://gregorio-vayavdasaber.blogspot.c ... rrero.html

Buscando en internet, no sé que cosa, encontré una receta que incluía dicho ingrediente y lo denominaba "chorizo de perro". Dicho sea de paso, en la romería de la Orotava de este año 2011, se hizo notar la crisis, pues no vi volar desde las carretas ni un mísero albaricoque y sin embargo, me "tupieron" a pan con "chorizo perrero" y "cotufas" (palomitas de maíz, pop corn, o "roscas en Gran Canaria").
Searching the internet, doing I know not what, I found a recipe that included the ingredient, and which was called, "chorizo of dog". As so happened, in the Orotava pilgrimage this year 2011, I noted a crisis because I saw neither carts nor other vehicles clogging the road, offering me bread with "chorizo of dog" and popcorn ("little doves" or "threads" on Gran Canaria).

El "chorizo de perro" es un nombre que se le ha dado en poner a la "sobrasada" o "chorizo perrero" por las generaciones de no superan los 40 y tantos años a día de hoy, ha trascendido a las siguientes generaciones por el simple hecho de desconocer su procedencia.
The "chorizo of dog" is a name that has been given to put the "sobrasada" or "chorizo dog catcher," as it is called by generations younger than 40-something today, having transcended the generations who are by now simply unaware of the origin.

Dicha denominación se hace de forma peyorativa por la similitud que tienen [...] los perros. En Tenerife se le daba ese nombre, en Gran Canaria "chorizo de Teror"...
La razón de dicho nombre es muy simple, "chorizo perrero", porque su precio era de 1 "perra" o "perra gorda", el nombre que se le daba a los 10 céntimos de peseta de la época de Franco (y posiblemente de la anterior República),
Eran de una aleación aluminosa y del tamaño aproximado de un Euro actual, tenían en el anverso un jinete lancero y en el reverso el escudo de España, de la cual existía una réplica más pequeña cuyo valor era 5 cm. Y se le llamaba "perra chica".

Such designation becomes a pejorative by its similarity with [...vulgarity deleted...] dogs.
In Tenerife it was given that name in Gran Canaria "chorizo de Teror" [Teror is the name of a town on Grand Cararia island]. The reason for this name "dog catcher chorizo" is very simple, because its price was 1 "bitch" or "fat bitch", the name was given to the 10 cents of a peseta of the Franco era (and possibly the previous Republic).
It was of an aluminum alloy and the size of a current Euro. It had a horse lancer on the obverse (front) and on the reverse (back) the arms of Spain, of which there was also a smaller replica whose value was 5 cents. And was called "perra chica" or "little bitch."

Asímismo se le llamaban "guaguas perreras" a las que formaban parte del transporte urbano de Santa Cruz de Tenerife, de color azul las recuerdo yo y algo mas modernitas en su diseño que la que está en la foto, de madera y con un cordel de cuero que la atravesaba longitudinalmente para hacer sonar la campanilla que solicitaba la parada, además del conductor ("el chofer") iba un cobrador con una tablilla llena de tickets con los precios de los diferentes trayectos y su cartera también de cuero marrón colgada al hombro con las "perras", cuyo precio habitual era de 2 "perras gordas", el trayecto mas largo.
Anyway, in those days there were buses called "dog catcher buses" which were part of urban transportation in Santa Cruz de Tenerife, painted blue and something else as I remember, and more modern in design than the one in the photo [see link], wood and a string of leather that crossed longitudinally to ring the bell to call for a stop, and the conductor/driver ("chauffer") was also a collector with a clipboard full of tickets of the prices of the various routes and also with a brown leather wallet over his shoulder with the "perras" ("bitches") whose normal price was 2 "perras gordas" for the longest journey.

Entonces, dicha similitud, semejanza o parecido con el animalito o parte de él, (Vaya Vd. A saber), que sugiera el "chorizo", es puro "perro" (dícese de los logros conseguidos de forma azarosa, sin intención, sin mérito y cómicamente, como por ejemplo algunos goles del C.D. Tenerife la pasada temporada)
So that explains the similarity, likeness or resemblance between the phrase for the animal or animal part thereof, (which part, you now know), saying that the chorizo is pure "dog" (actual meaning: an achievement made in a random, purposeless manner without merit and comically. ...like some futbol goals made by CD Tenerife team last season).

Whew! That one was a bear to translate. Interestingly, though, the phrase "chorizo de Perro" has taken on its own life not only in the popular vernacular, but also with actual recipes available. The actual chorizo is known as "chorizo de Teror," a village on the island of Gran Canaria, and is a spreadable sausage.

...and it possibly be another explanation for the "hot dog" in English?

Summary - Critique
An opinion, plus a conclusion of sorts.
Opinion: These are mine: I like Mexican-style chorizo best because that`s what I`m used to. The others are enjoyable, but let`s face it- - if you are surrounded by a particular style, chances are that you like it best. I`m reminded of when my job took me to North Carolina. We craved Mexican food. We tried North Carolina "Mexican Food." It was awful. When it was time to pay the bill, the cashier asked how we liked it.

My wife, who grew up in San Antonio, burst out laughing. "This is the worst excuse for Mexican food that I have ever tried. Where the **bleep** did you people come up with this **bleep**? ...North Carolina?"

The poor man looked crestfallen. "I apprenticed in Atlanta," he said. "People say that we do a good job. I hope you`ll come again..."

She was halfway out the door by then, laughing hysterically, repeating the word "Atlanta. ...AtLANta! Hah! ...canned beans! ...iceberg lettuce! Hah!" ...and more that I don`t care to repeat.

Which is to say that food, be it Mexican food or sausage, is what you are used to and like. I confess that I don`t care for Italian food- - it`s heavy, the tomato sauce and the gluten cause acid reflux, and so forth. I never tried it until my mid thirties, because it wasn`t available until I spent some time on a job in New Jersey. I can`t stomach North Carolina barbeque because... well, I`m used to smoked beef brisket, Texas style, and the idea of chopped, oven-cooked pork covered with sticky, sweet sauce never occurred to me until my early forties, when we relocated to North Carolina. I don`t mind Italian sausage, but I wouldn`t go out of my way for it. Polish sausages, kielbasa and the like, are good but unfamiliar. Bratwurst, on the other hand, is something that my wife likes, seeing as how San Antonio is surrounded by, and has a long, German heritage. Into our local melting pot were thrown German, Czech, and Hispanic influences. ...and that`s what we like.

So please`dabble in the chorizos of the Americas, and hopefully find one or some that you like. They are quite varied, And if you decide that you don`t care for them, that`s fine. Try the fermented varieties from Spain, and don`t overlook the increasing availability of fermented chorizos from the Western Hemisphere. One thing that I`m dying to do is visit the Phillipines and try their chorizo, including something that sounds fascinating- - chorizo made with tuna. ...but there`s that Spanish heritage, rearing its head again.

Buen provecho!

Conclusion: I think we can safely say that the word "chorizo" as it originated in Spain means "colored sausage made with pork and other peppers besides black pepper" in Mexico and Central America, and "sausage made with pork and other peppers besides black pepper" in South America. Tradition is a powerful force. Perhaps the real connection is "sausage in a country with significant Spanish heritage." (That would cover the tuna chorizo of the Phillipines.)

There are many similarities but, as geography changes, so do the contents and style of the sausage. Whatever it is, though, chorizo continues to be enjoyed throughout the Western Hemisphere (those pesky Canadians excepted), no matter how much it is adapted. Viva chorizo!
Last edited by Chuckwagon on Mon Nov 16, 2015 22:49, edited 1 time in total.
If it looks like a duck, walks like a duck, and quacks like a duck, it probably needs more time on the grill! :D