Online Workshop: Project B2 (October 2013)

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markjass
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Post by markjass » Sat Oct 26, 2013 12:58

Thanks CW for the stuff on Casings And Stuffing. I have a spare stuffing horn. I may shorten the length of this to get around the problem of stuffing collagen casings. This will mean that I will not be able to get so much casing on the horn,but rather that than the problems that I had the other day.

A questions on your Kabanosy:
You mention air drying the sausage. What range of temperature are you talking about.

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First Sausage

Post by Shuswap » Sat Oct 26, 2013 15:03

Before making the fresh sausage recipes in B2 I had to use up some ground turkey in the freezer. This would be my first sausage.

2 pounds (~900g) boneless chicken thighs and breast with skin, roughly chopped (you can also use just thighs only)
2 teaspoons kosher or course salt
1 teaspoon ground ginger
1/2 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper
1 Granny Smith apple, peeled and chopped
2 tablespoons minced onion
1/4 cup of chardonnay

The ground turkey only had 8% fat so I added bacon fat trimmings. The apple was Red Delicious from our orchard.

DW was out of town so when I cooked a patty before stuffing I didn`t notice the onion was missing - she is the chef and would have noticed, hence the stack of onions in the pan whilst browning the sausage. Last night we made bangers and mash as we had turkey gravy left over from Thanksgiving. She gave me a passing grade instructing me how to double check a recipe.

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Post by Chuckwagon » Sun Oct 27, 2013 01:25

Shuswap, that looks like great sausage! I imagine the apple and onion make it interesting.
Mark, you wrote:
A questions on your Kabanosy:
You mention air drying the sausage. What range of temperature are you talking about.
After is smokes and bakes at 150 degrees F., I just allow it to cool to room temperature then put it in a paper bag inside a refrigerator. After two days, it will have lost a bit of moisture and yields a very nice "semi-dry" texture. After 3 or 4 days, it's even better.

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Chuckwagon
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Post by Chuckwagon » Sun Oct 27, 2013 03:48

Self Check-Up

1. Stuffing casings right out of the grinder is poor practice, yet innumerable people believe it is proper practice. If you must process sausage in this manner, please grind the sausage into a container placed inside a bowl of _______.
2. Before stuffing sausage casings, they must be rinsed inside and out to remove _________.
3. After you soak lamb or hog casings, they may be placed on the nozzle of your ________ _______ then flushed with water to remove the salt inside them.
4. Natural casings are made from the submucosa collagen layers inside the intestines of sheep, hogs, and cattle. Flushed, cleaned, turned inside out and scraped with knives, they are finally salted and shipped in a______ ______ ______.
5._________ and __________make casing more porous and tend to soften them.
6. Hog casings (upper intestines) are sold in 91-meter lengths cut into "______".
7. "Shorts" are bundles of hanks that are one to two meters _________.
8. The average diameter of a hank is about 35 millimeters and may be used for numerous sausages including ______ and ______.
9. "Chitterlings" are ______ ______.
10. Chitterlings are curly and sold in ______ ______ lengths.
11. A hog "bung" is the extreme end of the intestine and may vary from 55 to 90 millimeters. They are usually sold ____________.
12. The three most used beef casings are _________, ________, and ________.

True Or False:

13. T F Beef middles are sold in "sets" of 9 and measure 18 meters in length (30 feet).
14. T F You may "special order" beef middles in sets of 3 which only measure 3 meters in length.
15. T F If you are making mortadella, a good casing choice is beef bladder although it actually comes from a sheep.
16. T F Beef bladders are oval-shaped.
17. T F Never attempt to lubricate the stuffer tube with butter or any other lubricant other than water, as this will affect the cooking-smoking of the skin later on.
18. T F Livestock simply cannot produce enough casings to wrap all the luncheon meats and sausages we devour annually, so today, about 30% of the sausage sold in your local market is stuffed into synthetic casings.
19. T F Casings having a coating of protein inside, shrink along with the meat as it dries.
20. T F Fibrous casings have the added strength of silky asbestos fibers running lengthwise through them, giving them added strength.
21. T T A "blooey" is five pounds of meat stuffed into a three-pound bag. :roll:
22. T F A collagen casing is a synthetic casing.
23. T F Collagen casings must be soaked before use.
24. T F Collagen casings are fully digestible, not erratic in size, do not need to be cleaned, flushed, or even pre-soaked, and remains fairly strong for stuffing, yet is most tender to the tooth. It is shipped inside sanitary containers ready to be stuffed onto the horn without additional washing, soaking, or handling. The only single drawback with using collagen casings is they cannot be twisted into links and have to be tied with string.
25. T F Natural casings on fresh sausage may be tough if the product is cooked at too high a temperature for too short a period of time. They may also be tough if they`re not soaked long enough before being stuffed.
26. T F If smoke will not penetrate casings, they have not dried properly.
27. T F The "primary bind" refers to how much soy protein concentrate you add to the mixture.
28. T F The proper development of actin, myosin, and other proteins is critical for good texture in the finished product. It is achieved by proper mixing. However, the texture may become rubbery if the meat is over-mixed.
29. T F Cure #1 (Prague Powder) in the United States, is colored pink and contains 6.25% sodium nitrite (NaNO2), and 93.75% sodium chloride (salt). Merely two level teaspoons of it will cure 10 lbs. of sausage.
30. T F Cure #2 is used in dry-cured sausages and whole-muscle meats where curing time allows the nitrate to gradually break down into nitrite. Cure #2 in the United States, contains one-ounce (6.25%) sodium nitrite (NaNO2), with .64 ounce (4%) sodium nitrate (NaNO3), and 89.75 sodium chloride in 1 lb. of salt.
31. T F Sodium nitrite cures meat almost immediately. However, in other applications such as whole muscle curing, sodium nitrate must be reduced to nitrite and further to nitric oxide in order to cure meat. In other words, nitrite is simply too fast and a prescribed amount of nitrate must be added to "break down over time". This insures a constant reservoir of sodium nitrite in the mixture.
32. T F Potassium Nitrate is "saltpeter" and is no longer used in curing sausages in the United States although it is acceptable in many countries.
33. T F Nitrate in itself is not successful in producing the curing reaction. Sodium nitrate must be reduced by lactic acid bacteria (micrococcaceae species), or other natural means, to be effective.
34. F F If you are out of Cure #1, then just add half again as much Cure #2.
35. T F The formula for Cure #1 contains only nitrite while the formula for Cure #2 contains both nitrite and nitrate.
__________________________________________________________________
Answers: 1. ice 2. packing salt 3. Kitchen tap 4. saturated salt solution 5. moisture and heat. 6. Hanks 7. long 8. (name any two): various cooked sausages, pepperoni, Italian sausage, Kielbasa, Kishka, or larger franks. 9. Hog middles 10. One-meter 11. Individually 12. "bung caps", "beef rounds", and `beef middles". 13.T 14.F 15.F 16.T 17.F 18.F (80%) 19.T 20.F 21.F 22.F 23.F 24.T 25.T 26.T 27.F 28.T 29.T 30.T 31.T 32.T 33.T 34.F 35.T
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Post by ottothecow » Sun Oct 27, 2013 19:17

Can I make the kabanosy (with casings) without a smoker? Obviously, I would lose the smoke flavor, but could I just skip to the low oven step?

I've been trolling craigslist for for an electric smoker (the only practical option for my apartment building) but have yet to come up with something. Otherwise I will just wait for one of these things to go on sale again (seen them for $100 or so every once and a while): http://www.amazon.com/Masterbuilt-20070 ... 00104WRCY/
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Post by crustyo44 » Sun Oct 27, 2013 20:32

Hi Otto,
Manufacturers use liquid smoke and/or smoke powder all the time and so do some hobbyists to some extend.
Google "Wrights Liquid Smoke" for instructions, recipes etc.
Good Luck,
Jan.
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Post by Chuckwagon » Mon Oct 28, 2013 01:55

Otto wrote,
Can I make the kabanosy (with casings) without a smoker? Obviously, I would lose the smoke flavor, but could I just skip to the low oven step?
Yes, you certainly may. Otto, to tell you the truth, I make more of it these days without smoking it. I use liquid smoke to spray them while they are being turned over on the screens during the second day. Once they are sprayed, I even turn on a couple of fans to help develop the pellicle on the extruded type sausages. These little things just don't last very long around this house and like El DuckO, I have to keep a batch going all the time.
One more note here. I like to add lots of freshly cracked black pepper, but I also found that if I add a couple of teaspoons of garlic powder to the ten pound recipe, it really improves the flavor. This stuff is addictive! :mrgreen:

Good luck pal.
Best Wishes,
Chuckwagon
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Post by Chuckwagon » Mon Oct 28, 2013 03:00

Pigs And Hogs

One billion hogs live throughout the world and about half are in China, the world's leading producer having forty different breeds. Of these, the United States has only eight commonly raised breeds including the American Landrace, Berkshire, Chester White, Duroc, Hampshire, Poland China, Spotted, and Yorkshire - all developed in this country with the exceptions of the Berkshire and Yorkshire, imported from England during the 1800's.

Piglets weigh only about 2-1/2 pounds at birth but double their weight in a week. Fully-grown males (boars) weigh more than five hundred pounds, and sows (females) more than four hundred and fifty. A young female that has not yet had piglets, is called a "gilt", and a young, castrated male is known as a "barrow". Giving birth to piglets is called "farrowing". The time period from conception to birth is 3 months, 3 weeks, and 3 days, and most sows deliver 2 litters per year, each having seven to twelve piglets.

Today, hogs grow faster on less feed, produce more lean meat and less fat than those raised in the past, and actually consume about twenty percent of the corn grown in the United States. Hog producers, listening to consumers' preferences and concerns, have dramatically changed pork since the 1980s. America's fitness trend and a more health-concerned generation have simply demanded it. Of prime importance, improved breeding and feeding practices have all but eradicated trichinella spiralis in pork! As producers continued to upgrade the quality of pork, they have also consistently reduced the animal's fat content by nearly forty - five per cent. The most popular selection of pork, the tenderloin, is now a whopping 42% lower in fat. Pork chops today, are a colossal sixty percent leaner than those just thirty years ago. Today's lean pork means it plays a vital part in a healthy diet as it contains many nutrients including six essential vitamins, four important minerals, protein, and energy. Our old perception of pork is changing as consumers are beginning to realize it is a most desirable lean meat.

Although the elimination of trichinae in pork is one of the most significant improvements in the industry, not everyone is happy with the reduced fat content of the animal. Since pork fat is the secret of its flavor, traditional sausage makers are disgruntled with modern lean pork as there is simply less fat available. Most sausage makers these days must scramble to find "fat back" - the creamy, flavorful addition necessary in amounts of about 1/4 the total volume of any good sausage. Many experienced fermented-sausage crafters claim the days of authentic salami flavor are now gone, while any ol` timer will tell you how the savor and essence of the meat itself has been reduced. Pork is not "aged" as is beef, and it must be cut and wrapped within 24 hours of slaughter for best results.

Unlike beef, having three primary cuts along it's back, the hog has but one - the loin. The fore-end of the loin is called the "shoulder cut" or "shoulder chops", while the center cut has "rib chops". The south end of the loin on a northbound pig contains the tenderloin and the "sirloin chops". Shoulder cuts have a lot of fat and connective tissue and are good for roasting or braising but not especially pan-frying. Center cuts have two types of connective muscle while loin chops have one.

Self Checkup

1. Before Project "B", did you realize that considering the expense of the amount of grain it requires to simply produce a pound of beef, the bovine is one of the most inefficient animals on our planet?
2. Why is "prime beef" not found in supermarkets and grocery stores?
3. What is a neutered bull called?
4. A young cow, more than one year of age, is called a heifer. What is a "fresh" cow? How long will she continue to give milk? What is she called when she ceases to produce milk ?
5. Why was the Texas Longhorn phased out? What breed of steer does most of our beef come from today? Why?
6. The quality of beef is determined by what? Is "choice" beef available in supermarkets?
7. What happens during "aging"?
8. Why is "select" beef usually slow cooked or grilled? Is this a good choice of meat for sausage?
9. When beef is purchased in vacuum packages, it appears dark reddish-purple. When the package is opened, exposure to oxygen causes the meat to turn what color? What color will it be after a few days?
10. Since the 1980`s, the fat content in pork has been reduce about how much? Why are sausage makers generally not at all happy about this reduction?
11. Beef has three primary cuts along it's back. The hog has but one. What is it called? What is pork shoulder also known as?
________________________________________________

Answers: (1.) ? (2.) It is kept for restaurants (3.) Steer (4.) One that has given birth - has an eleven month milk supply after which she becomes a "dry" cow (5.) Not economically produced (too lean) - Hereford and Angus (6.) Marbeling - yes (7.) Connective tissues break down through the action of enzymes, increasing tenderness (8.) Needs tenderizing or marinating - yes (9.) bright red - brown (10.) nearly 45% - less fat means less flavor (11.) the loin - shoulder is called Boston Butt
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Post by Chuckwagon » Mon Oct 28, 2013 03:23

Yeeee Hawww smoke wranglers! Have you been reading as well as grinding? It`s time to move on a little and read a bit more. See if you can answer these questions. If you can`t, you may wish to go back and read a little more.

1. How much water does meat contain?
2. How much water does fat contain?
3. Besides water, something else in meat is made up of amino acid "chains" and contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen along with a few other elements. These are called what?
4. Deer hunters should note that before rigor mortis sets in, the temperature of the meat should not drop below about 50° F. Why is this important? However, upon the onset of rigor and throughout the aging process, the carcass should be cooled and kept within the range of 30° - 40° F.
5. Does salt "cure" meat. Explain your answer

Answers:
1. 75%
2. Only 10% to 15%
3. Proteins
4. meat will become tough when later cooked.
5. No, it binds "available" water.


READING:
Please start on the following reading objectives. Stan has written some marvelous material here for us. Please feel free to write in and discuss any topic or question that arises. Please click on the following link about stuffing: http://www.meatsandsausages.com/sausage-making/stuffing. At the top of the page be sure to click on the sub-topics
(a.) Stuffing
(b.) Stuffing Casings
(c.) Stuffing Sausages

Next, read a little about the drying process at this link: http://www.meatsandsausages.com/sausage-making/drying. There is some important material to be learned here if you intend to make a professional product. The drying of sausages doesn`t just pertain to dry-cured sausage. Our next "cured n` smoked" type sausages must be dried before they will take on any smoke.

DISCUSSION:
Right now, I`d sure like to hear from everyone in Project B2. How about checking in and letting us know how the reading is going as well as giving us a few words about making the sausages. Photos would be terrific. Oh, and yes... if anyone wants to discuss any quiz questions, please let us hear about it.
We`ll be discussing cooking and cooling meat pretty soon. Don`t be afraid to ask questions that come up during the reading.

PROJECT:

At this point in our Project B2, let's pause to read a bit and digest some of the sausage we've made. Some of you have orders still being delivered. Let's ask our ol' pal Russ (El DuckO) to give us some pointers on making his specialty - chorizo. The Duck makes the best chorizo on the planet! He's even written a book about it and you may find it in three parts, beginning at this link: http://wedlinydomowe.pl/en/viewtopic.php?t=5873
Chapters 4 through 6 are here: http://wedlinydomowe.pl/en/viewtopic.php?t=5934, and
Chapters 7 and 8 are here: http://wedlinydomowe.pl/en/viewtopic.php?t=6504

El Duckaroo, will you let us in on some of your secrets and perhaps guide us through one of your "fresh" chorizo recipes? Nothing too elaborate... no pressure here... just tell us how to make the tastiest chorizo in the universe! :shock:

Best Wishes,
Chuckwagon
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Post by sambal badjak » Mon Oct 28, 2013 14:29

So I got a couple of kabanosy questions as well.
I cannot get liquid smoke or is there maybe a way you can make it yourself?
I don't have a warm smoker, but I could smoke at around 35-40 oC for one or two hours. Could I finish of the kabanosy in the oven after that?

I have sheep casings and collagen casings, but the only way Ithink I can stuff them is by doing this by hand (like Markjass in an earlier post in this thread)
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travelling with food

Post by el Ducko » Mon Oct 28, 2013 18:13

Funny that you should mention it, CW, but I`ll be off-planet for the next couple of weeks. That`s kinda like being off the grid, but for better or worse. (Translation- - Beloved Spouse is going too.) Better make enough Kabanosy to see us through the trip.

Traveling with Food: Actually, that`s a good strategy for cross-country automobile trips, but it won`t be possible this time. We`ll be flying internationally, and airport personnel like nothing better than confiscating food when you cross a border. We have a friend who`s an Airport Inspector, and every few months they have this gigantic cookout... (Actually, they burn all the food products that they confiscate, and they shake their heads and salivate while witnessing...)

There`s a solution, though. As you travel, buy sealed, vacuum-packed items, and always declare them when you re-enter the USA, but do so as "commercially-packed food products" and be prepared to lose `em if the USDA inspector so much as looks at you wrong. Over the years, we`ve brought back such items as Gruyere and Vacherin cheese from Switzerland and chorizo from Chile without problem. As long as they actually ARE commercially-packed (you bought `em, right?) and sealed so the nice doggie can`t smell `em, you`re within regulations and often are good to go. If they find `em and take `em, you`re okay because you declared `em. If they ignore `em, there`s no problem. Just don`t try to sneak `em in without declaring them. They don`t like that.
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Chorizo

Post by el Ducko » Mon Oct 28, 2013 18:30

Speaking of Chorizo, let`s make some that you will enjoy eating for breakfast. In South Texas, the breakfast taco is ubiquitous, so much so that the number of people who can say `ubiquitous` must number in the teens already. (Not so, those who can spell...) A breakfast taco consists of a flour tortilla or two corn tortillas, wrapped around just about anything that can`t get away. Eggs and [blank], where [blank] can mean just about anything that can be scrambled with eggs, are most popular. Otherwise, it would be a lunch taco or a dinner taco, I guess. I`ll have to think about that. Popular combinations include beans and egg, bacon and egg, cheese and egg, chorizo and egg, potatoes and egg, nopalitos (cactus) and egg, yada-yada and egg...

The chorizo that we`ll use for breakfast tacos is typically a loose, fresh sausage, although the fermented variety can certainly be chopped up and browned. CW had a cured, smoked, semi-dry version as part of the first Project B which was good, especially as an ingredient in sausage dishes (great when cooked with black beans), but my favorite is still the fresh variety. It`s in here as a result of my love of chorizo for breakfast but my distaste for the kind available in grocery stores. The commercial stuff has all the things left over after they make sausage (meaning the parts you don`t want to know about), and is so fatty that it melts before it cooks (not a good sign). "Drain it," you say? The taste components are oil-soluble, so draining the grease isn`t the answer. ...a shame.

A Starting Recipe: My apologies for the wordiness of my writeup (see CW`s post for the links, starting with http://wedlinydomowe.pl/en/viewtopic.php?t=5873). I get carried away. Just wade through it until you hit Melissa Guerra`s recipe, not too far down that first page, which is a good starting place. Be advised beforehand that these recipes are not very spicy (piquant, a.k.a picante) in the hot pepper sense. Yes, there are plenty of spices, but they are for flavor and color, rather than "heat."

Ms. Guerra`s recipe has about 0.8 percent ancho chile, a little bit more than the garlic, so it`s a nice, mild introduction to the genre. You`ll notice the use of vinegar, which definitely affects the flavor. This is traditional. I speculate (but can`t prove it) that this was used because Spanish chorizos traditionally are fermented and have a subtle tangy flavor, but in the "New World" it was difficult to duplicate the required conditions for fermentation.

A Better Recipe? Try my standard recipe if you prefer. It`s listed at that same link but farther down, or at http://wedlinydomowe.pl/en/viewtopic.ph ... rizo+ducko and features a bit more chiles as ingredients. My standard recipe contains about 1.8% ancho chile and another 1% pasilla chile, both of which are fairly mild, flavorful chiles. There`s also about 1.5% garlic and 0.6% sweet paprika for flavor and color. You`ll like the little touch of flavor that the cloves add- - like the cumin, it`s another Mexican traditional touch.

Spicier But Still Mild:
Hey! ...just like me! I`ve been playing around with Sriracha, that Vietnamese condiment made from red jalapenos, lately. You might enjoy this one. I run the ancho up slightly (to 2%) as well as the pasilla (1%), increase the color slightly (paprika to 1%), and add Sriracha to 1%. The recipe that follows uses one pound of 80/20 pork mince (from pork butt). You can taste the spiciness. ...piquancy. ...pecan seeds? What-the-???
(What you CAN'T do is measure to two decimal places, unless you borrow Ross Hill's double beam balance. Sorry about that. Blame my spreadsheet.)


Chorizo with Sriracha
1.79 tsp 10.7 gm 2.11% salt (non-iodized)
..............454. gm 89.96% Pork Class II-A: <30%. Pork butt
40.00 ml 40.0 gm 7.93% vinegar (6% acid)
4.04 tsp 10.1 gm 2.00% chile-ancho
2.08 tsp 5.20 gm 1.03% chile-pasilla
0.04 tsp 0.08 gm 0.02% cloves (ground)
0.14 tsp 0.28 gm 0.06% coriander (ground seed)
0.08 tsp 0.16 gm 0.03% cumin (ground)
3.20 tsp 8.00 gm 1.59% garlic (fresh)
0.11 tsp 0.16 gm 0.03% oregano
2.38 tsp 5.00 gm 0.99% paprika sweet
0.14 tsp 0.30 gm 0.06% pepper (black)
0.96 tsp 5.00 gm 0.99% sriracha

Processing and Packaging:
For all of these recipes, coarse grind and refrigerate the pork butt. Mix the salt into the vinegar and dissolve it, for better distribution. Remove the seeds from the chiles (toasted, if you like), break the chiles up into pieces, then grind them in a coffee grinder or the like. Then mix them and the spices into the vinegar. I use fresh garlic, finely chopped. If you use powdered garlic, cut the weight in half.

Mix the vinegar + spices into the chilled meat mince, using gloved hands. Once it is well-mixed and starts to stiffen (which it won`t, much, due to the vinegar), press it into the bottom of the bowl, then cover with plastic wrap or waxed paper. Refrigerate overnight.

The next day, I like to package the sausage in usable quantities. I use 5-1/2-by-6-inch fold-top sandwich bags (the cheapest kind), weighing out about 4 ounces (100 grams or so) per bag. I roll them tightly, then use vacuum seal bags to freeze them, two or four to the package. If you`re clever, you can use enough freezer bag to be able to clip the corner (break the vacuum), pull out one cylinder, then vacuum seal the bag again and again several times.

Cooking: Each rolled sandwich bag contains enough chorizo for four eggs, and will feed two people. Toss the contents of a sandwich bag into a skillet on low heat, take your time until the sausage is completely thawed, spread it out, fry it, then add in the eggs, scrambling as you go. You can eat the eggs scrambled, or (my favorite) steam or fry tortillas and add the scrambled mix to them. I usually add some salsa. Yum!
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Post by Chuckwagon » Tue Oct 29, 2013 00:51

Sambal, liquid smoke is made by distilling massive amounts of hickory real smoke. It is a fascinating process best left to the professionals. Next, you wrote:
I don't have a warm smoker, but I could smoke at around 35-40 oC for one or two hours. Could I finish of the kabanosy in the oven after that?
Sambal, remember the three things needed for bacteria to multiply. Pathogenic bacteria are mostly anaerobic. By casing the kabanosy, you are cutting off oxygen. Next, bacteria need moisture and nutrient. The damp meat is ideal for providing pathogenic bacteria with just the right amount of moisture to multiply. Lastly, the temperature of your cold-smoker is perfect for the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Your suggested temperature of 35-40° C. is smack dab in the middle of the "danger zone". So, the answer to your question is no - it is just not safe.

However, you can use a hot smoker in which the initial smoke-house temperature (pre-heat) would be 52°C (125°F) with smoke being introduced. The temperature inside the smokehouse would be GRADUALLY increased (as the smoking continues), until the smokehouse temperature reaches 71°C (160°F.). Carefully observe and monitor the internal meat temperature of the sausages throughout the process. When the IMT reaches 66°C. (150°F), remove the sausages immediately and allow them to cool to room temperature.

Sambal, the cold-smoking process is for a completely different type of processing. It is a "drying" process in which bacteria cultures have been added to meat to control pathogens and the product loses moisture. It is a more specialized smoking process that we will discuss and use later. The "hot" smoking step at this juncture is very important. Please don`t overlook it. I will re-post some information about it. Stay well my friend and safe! Heat up your smoker!

Best Wishes,
Chuckwagon
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Post by Chuckwagon » Tue Oct 29, 2013 00:51

Cold Smoking vs. Hot Smoking

"Cold smoked meats prevent or slow down the spoilage of fats, which increases their shelf life. The product is drier and saltier with a more pronounced smoky flavor and very long shelf life. The color varies from yellow to dark brown on the surface and dark red inside. Cold smoked products are not submitted to the cooking process. Stan Marianski said, "If you want to cold smoke your meats, bear in mind that with the exception of people living in areas with a cold climate like Alaska, it will have to be done in the winter months just as it was done 500 years ago."

Cold smoking is a drying process usually involving many hours for several days or even weeks. On the other hand, hot-smoking is a smoking-prep cooking process usually finished relatively shortly (within hours). To ensure a constant breakdown of nitrate into nitrite in cold-smoking sausages, Cure #2 is most often used. However, occasionally in some comminuted sausage, the use of Cure #1 may be specified. Cold-smoked products are not usually smoked continuously as fresh air is usually allowed into the smoker at regular intervals to allow time for complete penetration of smoke deep into muscle tissues. As moisture leaves the meat, the product will become naturally rigid.

Because cold-smoked meat and fish products are not cooked, cold smoking is an entirely contrasting process from hot-smoking as the heat source is remote and the smoke is "piped" into the smokehouse from several feet away, giving the smoke time to cool down. Most often, the cold-smokehouse is elevated higher than the heat source, or the smoke is forced inside by a fan.

Because fish begins to cook at 85°F. (30°C.), the temperature in most American "cold-smoke houses" is less than 85° F. (29°C.) and often much lower in order to prevent spoilage. In Russia and many parts of Europe, the upper limit has been 71°F. (22°C.).

Cold-smoked products must contain nitrite or nitrate/nitrite cures to be safe because even using thin smoke, oxygen is cut off and most obligate anaerobic bacteria, some facultative anaerobic bacteria, and even some microaerophile bacteria may thrive. Never cold-smoke fresh sausage or any meat product without using a curing agent.

Some dry-cured (raw) sausages are held for weeks in cold-smoke while they continue to dehydrate safely below .85 Aw. Initially they are protected from pathogenic bacteria by the sausage`s salt content. This affords their only protection while the lactic acid is being produced by lactobacilli and pediococci bacteria. Additionally, some semi-dry cured sausages may be cold-smoked after they have been prep-cooked. Again, although cold smoking is not a continuous process, it usually assures deep smoke penetration. It is usually discontinued overnight, allowing fresh air to assist with the uniform loss of moisture.

Best Wishes,
Chuckwagon
If it looks like a duck, walks like a duck, and quacks like a duck, it probably needs more time on the grill! :D
markjass
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Post by markjass » Tue Oct 29, 2013 03:30

el Ducko
4.04 tsp 10.1 gm 2.00% chile-ancho
2.08 tsp 5.20 gm 1.03% chile-pasilla
Have not got pasilla. Would Guajillo or serento or chipotle do do as a substitute. Which would you suggest.

Mark
Do no harm. Margerine is the biggest food crime
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