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SalP
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Post by SalP » Sun Aug 31, 2014 05:13

Smoked Pork Loin

The five days of chillin (brining) in the fridge was up today. It took 8 hours to smoke and bake. I could not get the smoker to stay close to 200. For the first 2 hours it stayed between 210 and 230, then I got it down to between 170 and 190 for the next 2 hours. Pulled it and put it in a 200 oven for the next 4 hours. when I pulled it off the smoker the meat was at 125.

The taste was very smooth and silky. Just the right hint of smoke and maple.

What is the reason for keeping it at 200?

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sambal badjak
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Post by sambal badjak » Sun Aug 31, 2014 06:50

That looks great SalP.
It is on my to do list as well.
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Post by crustyo44 » Mon Sep 01, 2014 06:22

SalP,
That is a mighty fine looking loin. We call that here "Heartsmart"
Keep up the good work.
Jan.
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Cure for Smoked Pork Loin

Post by dabrjn » Mon Sep 01, 2014 22:00

CW,

Your recipe for the smoked pork loin calls for 3 Tbsp cure #1. What is the weight?

Earlier in the discussion on brining, it mentioned 120 grams cure/gallon of water for 200 ppm nitrite. Your 3 Tbsp would be 40 gram/Tbsp which seems awfully dense? Or are you going for a brining solution much less than 200 ppm?

My tcm weighs about 15 grams/Tbsp.

Thanks for your help and welcome back!

David.

p.s. Breakfast sausage were made by hand cutting. Held together fine, just took longer to develop the proteins and get the right stickiness. They were tasty, but a little too salty for me. May cut down salt next time I make them.

Hip shot burgers were good too. How did they get that name?
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Post by Chuckwagon » Tue Sep 02, 2014 04:45

SalP wrote:
The five days of chillin (brining) in the fridge was up today. It took 8 hours to smoke and bake. I could not get the smoker to stay close to 200. For the first 2 hours it stayed between 210 and 230, then I got it down to between 170 and 190 for the next 2 hours. Pulled it and put it in a 200 oven for the next 4 hours. when I pulled it off the smoker the meat was at 125.
The taste was very smooth and silky. Just the right hint of smoke and maple.
SalP, that is some of the nicest-lookin' CB I've ever seen. The smoking looks perfect and the texture and color of the meat are just what you're looking for. I have no doubt the end result was tasty and inviting. Congrats pal.

If I may ask you a favor, would you tell the members of Project KB what you learned as you made this product? Thanks SalP.

Oh, and yes... keep those photos coming! They are terrific. :wink:

Best Wishes,
Chuckwagon
Last edited by Chuckwagon on Tue Sep 02, 2014 07:56, edited 2 times in total.
If it looks like a duck, walks like a duck, and quacks like a duck, it probably needs more time on the grill! :D
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Post by Chuckwagon » Tue Sep 02, 2014 06:21

David, It has been established that for immersion, pumped, or massaged products, the maximum in-going nitrite limit is 200 ppm. That corresponds to adding 4.2 ounces of Cure #1 to a gallon of water. The 4.2 ounces equal 120 grams of Cure #1 or 6 tablespoons.
1 ounce of Cure #1 sold by the Sausagemaker in the United States = 2 tablespoons (6 teaspoons). Therefore 1-1/2 ounces make up 3 tablespoons which is 42.5 grams. Your post stated that you use 15 grams (Tbsp.). If you multiply that by 3, you get 45 grams which is the correct amount for the recipe.

As we get more into brining later in the project, we`ll discuss "takeup" and factors affecting it. When working with whole-muscle meats, you must realize that after the sodium nitrite has affected the amino acids and proteins, most of it is poured straight down the drain.

Glad to hear about your breakfast sausage. Don`t cut back on the salt too much though, as it is needed to modify proteins and binders. You have to have some salt to make proper sausage. Yikes! Too much and we hear all about high blood pressure from our doctor. Too little and it becomes unpalatable! My advice is to feed your horse plenty of molasses and whiskey mixed with straight oats. Wait about 8 hours then ride him into your doctor`s office, dismount, walk to the rear of your horse, grab his tail, and pump it up and down until your doctor gets the message! Then go eat all the sausage you have a mind to! :shock:

Oh, and yes... you wanted to know how "Hip Shot Hamburger" got its name. Well, you have to imagine hunting with my brother. He is a very diverse type of person but is still a straight-up guy and I love and admire him very much. I was hunting with him one day and saw him quickly draw his .357 magnum and "hip shoot" a bounding deer quite a distance away. It was a sporting shot and quite legal. The magnificent animal was partially used in my brother`s recipe for "Hip Shot" hamburgers. The buck`s entire head and mammoth rack of antlers were displayed in a local restaurant-bar for a few years before the place burned down, the owner having gone to jail for arson and torching his own place for the insurance.

Best Wishes,
Chuckwagon
If it looks like a duck, walks like a duck, and quacks like a duck, it probably needs more time on the grill! :D
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Post by Chuckwagon » Tue Sep 02, 2014 12:18

Hi Smoke Wranglers,
Let`s review just a few things and tie up some loose ends, just to make sure we understand them. It`s almost time to move on to the next topic in which you make your own sausage and place it into casings! When you stuff your "secret recipe" into a casing, you`ll need to know a little more about anaerobic bacteria and pathogenic bacteria, as oxygen is cut off from the meat by the casing... and the smoke. Within the "danger zone" and having moisture in the sausage mixture (nutrient), the FOUR requirements for optimum pathogenic bacteria growth are met! We MUST learn how to control this process so we don`t injure or even kill someone with the development of a toxin known as clostridium botulinum.

Soon after, we will learn how to make a frankfurter - a hot dog - by adding mustard to the blend, "emulsifying" the meat mixture, and then casing it without "smearing". For the first time, we`ll "prep cook" the sausage to destroy any possibility of trichinella spiralis - a live nematode worm sometimes found in pork. Shucks pards, we`ll learn all sorts of little tricks to help you in the future and keep you healthy! So, tip yer` ol` Stetson cady back and pay attention to the FSIS rules as we discuss them. Make some terrific pork sausages safely. We`ll crush all those bug critters determined to ruin your day! :mrgreen:

Before we learn about casing and smoking, allow me to include just a few last words about proteins. Looking back, you`ve learned quite a bit about them, discovering that YOUR weight is about 15% proteins - large molecules made of hundreds of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atoms. Broken down into smaller parts, science identifies specific "amino acids". Some understanding of the development of proteins (made of amino acids) is important when considering the modifications of the texture and other characteristics made within the meat.

There are 3 categories of meat proteins.

1. Sarcoplasmic (plasma) - water soluble - myoglobin - belongs to this group (gives meat its color)
2. Myofibrillar (contractile) - salt soluble - myosin and actin - belong to this group (water-holding & emulsifying)
3. Stromal (connective) - relatively insoluble - collagen and elastin - belong to this group (transmit movement)

1. Sarcopolasmic proteins are found in intracellular fluid and compose 30% of total muscle protein. They contribute only 20% to binding ability and the isoelectric point of its molecules is low, although they do contribute to tenderization through postmortem glycolysis, effecting a pH change. Don`t be too hard on the sarcopalasmic proteins though, because they potentially add flavor contributions from a process known as "protein hydrolysis".

Myoglobin consists of a typical amino acid protein concentration responsible for color intensity in meat. It was biologically designed to hold oxygen, and then release it for energy metabolism, so... it binds oxygen somewhat temporarily, dramatically changing meat`s color. Below are a few typical concentrations:

poultry white muscle .05 mg/g
chicken thigh 1.8-2.0 mg/g
turkey thigh 2.5-3.0 mg/g
pork, veal 1.0-3.0 mg/g
beef 4.0-10.0 mg/g
old beef 15.0-20.0 mg/g
mechanically separated meat 0.08-3.0 mg/g

2. Myofibrillar proteins are called the "contractile" proteins for the way they act upon muscle e.g. rigor mortis. Myofibrillar proteins are composed of 55% myosin - generally considered the single most important because of their long, highly-charged, "filament" molecule that is present in lean muscle. Actin and myosin are primarily responsible for creating the "sticky gel" that holds mixed, comminuted meat together. Note that these proteins are "salt soluble". When salt is added to the mixture, proteins develop rapidly as the texture becomes "sticky".

3. Stromal proteins are in connective tissue and are primarily collagen, composing about 20 - 25% total body protein in the skin, sinews, tendons, etc. They are designed to transmit force to hold things together, thus they are generally tough and inert. Stromal proteins are of little or no value in processed meats as they have little binding ability. Further, as an animal ages, its meat becomes tougher due to the stromal protein`s unique make-up of 33% glycine and 10% hydroxyproline - responsible for non-charged or "non-polar" molecules having a minimally low isoelectric point. Stromal protein is generally considered a problem in processed meats and "high collagen meats" are often limited to 15 - 25% maximum, although chopped, ground, powdered collagen which can be dispersed, can be useful in forming a gel when heated. They may also be useful in retaining water and fat.

Spoilage Bacteria

Don`t confuse pathogenic bacteria with spoilage bacteria. Pathogenic bacteria cause illness. They grow rapidly in the "Danger Zone" at temperatures between 40 and 140 °F. and do not always affect the taste, smell, or appearance of food. Food that is left too long at unsafe temperatures could be dangerous to eat, but can smell and look just fine. Campylobacter, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7 are examples of pathogenic bacteria.

Spoilage bacteria reproduce at specific temperatures and some can grow at the low temperatures inside your refrigerator or even your freezer. Other spoilage bacteria grow well at room temperature and anywhere within the "Danger Zone." Bacteria will grow anywhere they have access to nutrients and water and under the correct conditions, spoilage bacteria may reproduce extremely rapidly in large populations. Spoilage bacteria can actually double their numbers in as little as 20 minutes and it doesn`t take long for a large number of microorganisms and their waste products to cause objectionable changes in odor, taste, and texture. P.U. :roll: Brochotrix thermosphacta and Pseudomonas spp. are examples of spoilage bacteria.

It`s All About The Temperature

Mesophilic bacteria (the largest and most common group) are those that grow best in moderate temperatures - about 70° to 98° F. but mesophiles can also grow at only 45° degrees and up to 110° degrees, but they do so more slowly.

Some like it hot! Thermophilic bacteria live and multiply best at approximately 130° degrees F. but can grow anywhere between 110° and 190° degrees F.

Psychrophilic bacteria grow from 32° to 90° degrees F. Most thrive at 50° to 70° degrees. Because they grow better NOT best than the mesophilic bacteria at refrigerated temperatures--32 to 45 degrees--, this group is most often responsible for spoilage in refrigerated foods.

Contrary to the belief of many people, cold or freezing does not always kill bacteria. Make no mistake! In most cases it just stops or slows down their growth. The FSIS rules require "extended freezing" with prescribed lengths of time at precise temperatures to slowly kill them. Also, bacteria need water to grow and even though some of them have the ability to resist long drying out periods, keeping things dry will stop growth and in some instances will kill them. Generally, bacteria responsible for spoilage of foods (mesophilic and psychrophiles) can be killed by hot water. Ten minutes at 150 degrees F. will be sufficient. However, there are some strains so resistant that germicides such as chlorine and quaternary ammonium compounds are required to control them.

Making your own sausage recipe

It really doesn`t take long to discover that the best sausage is made of meat, salt, and pepper only. Yet, just one or two favorite spices may add just the right personal touch to your project. Believe me, if you get carried away adding all sorts of spices and herbs, you`ll just have ten pounds of sausage you don`t want to eat and can`t give away! Why not fry up just a sample "test" paddy and keep meticulous notes?

Your recipe will need a bit of salt - un-iodized salt that is! About 1-1/2 to 2% in fresh sausage. It`s there to hold water, bind proteins, flavor the meat, firm the meat, and prevent loss of water when it is cooked. How much do you need? Weigh the meat in grams - for every 100 grams of meat, simply add 2 grams of salt.

Next, you may need to add some backfat to your sausage. Put in a total amount of about 25% for best results. Thirty percent is alright if you want just a bit more for smooth chewing texture, but I suggest avoiding two things - beef fat and fat content above 30%. By the way, did you know that your local grocery store butcher can legally put 50% fat in his sausage. (And we wonder where all the grease comes from in the bottom of the frying pan.) :roll:

Here are a few details you`ll appreciate as you consider making your own "soon to be famous" sausage:

- Mother nature made a curious occurrence by placing the hardest fats near the interior of the piggy. The further the distance from the center of the animal, the softer it becomes. Backfat is ideal. And, please use pork fat - that`s where the flavor is, believe me.

- Piper nigrum is pepper. Both white pepper and black pepper are grown by the same plant although black pepper is mostly used in fresh sausage. It is added in amounts varying from .1% to .4% in meat.

- Spices are the most controversial ingredients in sausage. The choices are actually more limited than you may believe as many spices just do not do well in sausage. An excellent guideline for their use is given in chapter 12 of "Home Production Of Quality Meats And Sausages" by Stan Marianski. Various cultures over time have given us "signature spices". For instance, the addition of marjoram and garlic are common in Polish sausages, while Italian sausage uses fennel. The addition of cayenne gives us hot Italian sausage, while Hungarian sausage uses sweet Hungarian paprika. Andouille is distinguished by the addition of thyme with garlic, and our delicious kabanosy is made using nutmeg and caraway. Which spice will be your secret ingredient? Or will you even have a secret ingredient?

In the next section, we`ll learn how to add the proper sodium nitrite cure in the right amount and then even smoke it. We`ll take your same recipe, add the cure, stuff the sausage into casings, and find that it changes the entire character of your sausage. Perhaps you`ll grill it, boil it, broil it or even bake it in smoke.

For now, make a "fresh" sausage. Your own! You can case it only if you cook it right away. Remember not to smoke it (without a cure being added). Please keep good notes and write down all the details. Take photos too. Show us some preparation steps as well as some finished on the plate. And give your sausage an original name! Who can tickle the taste buds with this project? Go team, go!

Right now, let's get ready to make our own by first reading some material. Please read the following pages about "smoking sausages and meat" by Stan Marianski. These articles contain pertinent and significant information.

http://www.meatsandsausages.com/sausage ... oking-meat

http://www.meatsandsausages.com/sausage ... ed-sausage

http://www.meatsandsausages.com/meat-smoking

(to be continued)... :wink:

Best Wishes,
Chuckwagon
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Amount of Cure for Smoked Pork Loin

Post by dabrjn » Tue Sep 02, 2014 12:24

CW,

Thanks for your response. But in your smoked pork loin you are using 1 gallon of water, so wouldn't you be using 4.2 oz/120 grams of cure #1 and not 45 grams?

Thanks. David
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Post by Bob K » Tue Sep 02, 2014 13:57

David-
Not all recipes use the maximum amount of cure allowed. It is not always necessary.

The recipe CW posted works out to 75ppm if 45 grams of cure#1 are used.
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Post by Shuswap » Tue Sep 02, 2014 14:06

Whew - first of day back to school and we are back into it big time. When's PE? :wink:
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Post by dabrjn » Tue Sep 02, 2014 14:14

Bob,

I agree. I totally get that not all recipes use the maximum 200 ppm. That was the whole point of my question. Is CW using less than the maximum 200 ppm in the smoked pork loin recipe on purpose? If so, why? Was it because he wanted a longer cure time for more uptake? Was it because he wanted a less pink meat?

One issue I have is using volume measurements for ingredients without showing the comparable weights. Everybody weighs things differently. Someone packing cure into a tablespoon will use a different amount than someone not packing the cure. These weight differences can be significant.

David
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Post by Bob K » Tue Sep 02, 2014 15:19

dabrjn wrote:Bob,

I agree. I totally get that not all recipes use the maximum 200 ppm. That was the whole point of my question. Is CW using less than the maximum 200 ppm in the smoked pork loin recipe on purpose? If so, why? Was it because he wanted a longer cure time for more uptake? Was it because he wanted a less pink meat?

One issue I have is using volume measurements for ingredients without showing the comparable weights. Everybody weighs things differently. Someone packing cure into a tablespoon will use a different amount than someone not packing the cure. These weight differences can be significant.

David
Only CW can answer the first part of your question as it is his recipe and method.

And I agree on the weight measurement of ingredients. Much more accuracy and repeatability.

Unfortunately many older recipes are based on volume measurements and not weight and have not yet been converted.
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Post by el Ducko » Tue Sep 02, 2014 19:30

Bob K wrote:
dabrjn wrote:...Everybody weighs things differently. Someone packing cure into a tablespoon will use a different amount than someone not packing the cure. These weight differences can be significant...
...Unfortunately many older recipes are based on volume measurements and not weight and have not yet been converted.
I hope I'm not restating the obvious, but suggest that, when trying a recipe which has measurements in volume, you weigh a loosely-packed amount, then weigh a tightly-packed amount, and write down both. This way, you have a range of weight conversion factors that you can reasonably expect to see (and use) again. (I use grams per teaspoon for most of my herbs and spices, for example.) Write your results on the recipe, but also keep a "master list" of herb/spice densities for later use.

Your point bears repeating, though- - not all people pack their ingredients the same, and for herbs especially, differing particle sizes make for large variability in volume amounts. Also significant- - water content can drastically affect weights, as for example, dried versus fresh garlic, parsley, oregano, et cetera. Not only that, but adsorbed moisture can affect the weight- - for example, salt and cure #1.

...so keep detailed notes! You'll feel more secure in knowing how much. ...and hopefully, the variability is not enough to significantly change the flavor of your batch.
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Post by Bob K » Tue Sep 02, 2014 21:36

To me one of the main advantages of ingredients being listed by weight is that they can be scaled up or down much easier...the same as recipes using bakers percentages.

The Marianski recipes are given that way....along with the volume measurements.

http://www.meatsandsausages.com/sausage ... inocchiona

So el Ducko hows the new decoy working out?

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Baker's Percentages

Post by dabrjn » Tue Sep 02, 2014 22:38

Bob K,

Baker's Percentages? That's exactly what I was thinking. I'm a semi-professional baker and a volunteer for the Bread Bakers Guild of America and convert many of their member submitted formulas into a standard format for publication. That standard format includes weights and baker's percentages so I deal with them all the time. The BBGA has both professional and serious home bakers. Needless to say some formulas come in volume or unit measurements that need to be converted to weights from which we can derive the percentages. Using baker's percentages for sausage making is a great idea. You get a good sense of ingredient levels relative to the amount of meat, but do you really want to open that can of worms here? :cool:

Now you understand why I asked my original question!

david
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